Paul Georg Fidrmuc
Page initiated 8 July 2023
Current status: 29 July 2023
Chapter 12 (since 12 July 2023)
Chapter 13 (since 17 July 2023)
Chapter 14 (since 21 July 2023)
Chapter 15 (since 24 July 2023)
Chapter 16 (since 29 July 2023)
(N2030 ↓↓↓↓ N2030return)
Supplement Vol. U35* Report on the Case
* U35 is Klop Ustinov (the father of the later actor Peter Ustinov). A former German, whom since the 1920s acted as an informant for M.I.5 in various ways. As, curiously, most of the British M.I.5 servants couldn't speak themselves German language, nor could they read German texts; other than being translated first, including all the short-comings of a translation. This is, in my perception, one of the origins why Mr. Ustinov had become engaged as an informant for M.I.5 and betraying Germans deliberately. About (D.B.) Mr. Dick G. White, but also others, he was used in various cases to interview as a German (descent) to Germans living in England. Think of Salzmann, Abshagen and that like, but also Vera and quite many others. In my perception his judgements were most often severely faulty, (in my perception) due to the lack of sufficient brains. His conclusions, therefore, should be taken with a "soup-spoon full of salt'!
KV 2/198-1, page 4
This War Room file contains materials delivered from delicate sources (M.S.S.)
please read the rest yourself.
KV 2/198-1, page 5
27.6.46 From USFET (United States Forces European Theater) PI report No. 123 No. 123 on Fidrmuc. 184a (bear in mind that Fidrmuc was kept by US G-2 Force!)
4.9.46 Extract from USFET report on Schreiber (Leiter I-H K.O. Portugal) mentioning Fidrmuc 184b
14.11.46 To Brigadier Shoosmith, COG re Gessmann (KV 2/1458, PF 65005) and Fidrmuc 185a
?.12.46 Extract from interrogation report no. 133 on Franzbach (Pago - in Madrid, Stabsintendant Leiter Verwaltung; acted as Paymaster) re Fidrmuc 188b
7.1.47 Copy of letter from B.A.O.R. (British Army over the Rhine) re (Wolf von) Amerongen's interrogation on Fidrmuc 190z
KV 2/198-1, page 7part
14.2.47 Summary of traces of Mrs. Denise Anne de Lacerda de Matos (she betrayed the Fidrmuc family on request of S.I.S.) 212a (probably born Irish)
KV 2/198-1, page 10partially
1.5.47 To B.A.O.R. re whereabouts of von Carnap in connection with Fidrmuc 237a
1.5.47 To American Section re whereabouts of von Carnap in connection with 238a
KV 2/198-1, page 11partially
B.2.b. Please speak D.B. Dick G. White 9/5
On your instructions, I approached Commander Scott on 7.5.47 and asked him whether Mr. Johnson and I (Mrs. Joan Chenhalls?) might be allowed to travel to the American Zone of Germany to face Fidrmuc with the fact that Ratschitsky denies the allegations made against him and thus attempt to clear up this matter at the source. Commander Scott said that he could say straight away that as far as his department is concerned they would raise no objections to us going for this purpose, and he would signal at once and follow it up by a letter asking for Fidrmuc should not be released before our arrival. The current policy is to release every Abwehr character without delay, so I have today furnished the American Liaison section with the reason why we consider he should be held for the time being.
Commander Scott stated that we cannot now use the American facilities for travel as there is no longer a Forces air route to the American Zone from the country, but said that the normal Pan-American Air Lines travel direct to Frankfurt.
He agreed that the matter could most probably be settled within a matter of days and said he would inform Germany that we would be able to travel any time after 5th June (1947) (this date was chosen by Mr. Johnson to fit in with his next trip to Switzerland).
B.2.b/JC (Joan Chenhalls) 7.5.47 Sgd. J. Chenhalls
KV 2/198-1, page 15 (minute 247c)
71 Grosvenor Street (US Liaison)
May 15, 1947
Mr. J.C. Curry
Attention: Miss Joan Chenhalls.
Subject: Von Carnap; Paul Fidrmuc.
Dear Mr. Curry:
Reference is made to Miss Chenhall's request of 1 May 1947 for any information concerning the present whereabouts of Von Carnap (your reference is PF 6447/B.2.b./JC).
We have had a reply from your representative in Germany that Von Carnap was last reported at Lager Belinde near Baruth in April 1945. (AOB: Belinde was a group of Barracks about 15 km south of 'Zeppelin' (Zossen) south of Berlin; the main command centre south of Berlin; in 1944, it was used by the Abwehr and likely das Milamt) (AOB: curious is, that they had moved to another location by then. It might have been occasionally used as the Russians were approaching Berlin. How did the American knew this, as this territory felt in the hands of the Russians since early May 1945. It should, therefore, being regarded as obtained from "hear-say")
Winston M. Scott
Attaché, American Embassy
Chief, Liaison Section
KV 2/198-1, page 13a (minute 248a)
M.I.5. comments on the interrogation of Ratschitsky in Kingston, New York State, on 29th March 1947, and again on 7th April.
The F.B.I. report on Ratschitsky contains
(a) the case against him, mainly obtained from Fidrmuc,
(b) the result of M.I.5. check on names and persons prior to interrogation,
(c) the result of the F.B.I. check on names and records prior to interrogation,
(d) the factual report of the interrogation of Ratschitsky.
The F.B.I. report, perhaps rightly, omits one or two important impressions made upon the interrogators during the interview, and in an endeavour to get at the root of this matter these impressions must, I think be recorded.
(i) At the very beginning of the interview Ratschitsky was asked whether he knew Paul Fidrmuc. He relied "No". When he was asked again, with a note of surprise, he repeated his denial not so emphatically. When the interrogator said "Surely you know your second-cousin Paul Fidrmuc ?" he admitted that he did, and said that he had failed to recognise our pronunciation of Paul's surname.
(ii) He claimed he knew the names of no Czechoslovak officials in London, and it was some three minutes before he came out with the names of Masaryk and Benes. He stated that he did not know that Jannoushek was the head of the Czech Air Force, and "believed he had heard the name Lobkowitz before". Although his memory for names id admittedly very bad, it is difficult to believe that he had such total ignorance of the Czechoslovak leaders in this country.
(iii) He has an obvious grudge against the Czechoslovak Government. Whether this is due to the fact, as he contends, that his citizenship has been taken away from him now by degree as a Sudeten-German. (AOB: Mr. Ratschitsky was born in former Sudetenland. German language version: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudetendeutsche ; English version: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudeten_Germans ), and that they also turned down his application to enter U.N.R.R.A. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Relief_and_Rehabilitation_Administration) is not vlear. In my view there is some unresolved matter between him and the Czechoslovak Government.
The impression Ratschitsky made on the interrogators was of an able lawyer and business man who had, by sheer ability, made good in more than one field entirely on his own merits. It was obvious that he was unwilling to risk jeopardising his self-made future and would put up a tenacious (resolute) fight before doing so. He repeatedly asked for evidence of his "guilt", and it must have become clear to him that we had none. Whilst he realised half-way through the interrogation that the source of most of the troubles lay with Fidrmuc, yet he was given the impression - and there was no doubt that he believed it - that the Czech Government was aware of the suspicions against him and that he might have to answer to them ultimately.
All possible methods of shaking this man in his denials were used and following the big guns, he was subjected to an extremely thorough chronological questioning on his life and movements. I an satisfied that, under the peculiar conditions, nothing more could have been done.
He told his wife of everything on his return to his home, and there was no doubt of her obvious desire to help in any way she could. All papers in his possession were made available to us and he came in to see the resident agent on three subsequent occasions to over fresh details that he had come to memory There was no doubt of his obvious affection for the garrulous (talkative) German Jewess who is his wife.
To sum up this case, the points for and against should be clearly set out, checks should be made elsewhere, and Fidrmuc faced with the fact that Ratschitsky has denied everything.
1. No adverse trace in any official records in either the United Kingdom or the U.S.A.
AOB: I would like to close the foregoing interrogation report.
KV 2/198-1, page 19 (minute 246a)
PF 64447.B.2.b./JC (= Joan Chenhalls) 14th May 1947
We have just sent the following telegram to the Intelligence Division:
"Please trace Dr. Hans Otto Haehnle, Chief I G (office supplying false documents, mainly of good quality) Offices in Berlin (since 1944, in Berlin situated at: Beymestrasse 12 and Delbrückstrasse 6), Brussels and Wiesbaden, who was interrogated at Badsalzuflen 12th May 1946, and ask him whether secret-writing messages received from Ostro @ CHB * were written always by the same man, that is to say Fidrmuc, or whether they were by chance the original messages received from his sources.
Please regard this request as urgent as Fidrmuc at present under interrogation in American Zone."
There is the possibility that Haehnle, who was originally interviewed by United States C.I.C., and is of interest to both the Americans and the British, may have gone into your Zone, and I should be grateful if an enquiry as to his whereabouts could be made in your Zone, and this question put to him.
Lt.Cmdr. Winston Scott,
Attaché, American Embassy,
Chief Liaison Section,
71 Grosvenor Street.
* (F2020 F2020return)
KV 2/198-1, page 33
Empty page with at the top-right 240a
KV 2/198-1, page 11x (minute 240a)
2.5.47 From American Liaison Section attaching CI (Counter Intelligence) IIR/61 on "Ostro Intelligence Source in France". 240a (AOB: likely contained this reference names of unconcerned people)
KV 2/198-1, page 35 (238a)
PF.64447/B.2.b/JC 1st May 1947
I should be grateful if an enquiry could be made in the American Zone of Germany as to the whereabouts of Oblt. von Carnap. On re-examination of the files, we see that Schellenberg (Leiter R.S.H.A. Amt VI including Milamt / Amt Mil) states that this man knew the names of Fidrmuc's agents, and we consider that it would be well worth while if Carnap was asked the names of Fidrmuc's agent or agents in the U.K. (AOB: One of the agreement conditions (late 1934/early 1935) were: that Fidrmuc was not obliged to release names of his agent or agents in the U.K. You will remember that von Carnap was the Berlin representative of Brucker-Traus (Fidrmuc's firm) (AOB: twice nonsense and incorrect; Fidrmuc was a partner of Brucker-Traus) and was this man's arrest or present whereabouts.
Lt. Commander Winston Scott,
Attaché American Embassy,
Chief Liaison Section,
71 Grosvenor Street,
KV 2/198-1, page 42a
AOB: essential information!
1. CI-PIR/123, 29 May 1946
2. CI-SR/27m 7 December 1946
3. CI-IIR/60, 5 March 1947
When the Abwehr first solicited the cooperation of Fidrmuc, in May 1934, their immediate interest was centred around his extensive knowledge of world trade, particularly his knowledge of the international armament trade. As a buying agent in Hamburg, he was active in the field and had established connections with various armament merchants, among them Magnus Jr. and Benny Spiro, both of Hamburg, from whom he had purchased arms and ammunition for Portugal and her colonies, and for Liberia.
The firm of Magus Jr. was conducted by the son-in-law, Hammerschlag, with whom Fidrmuc was also socially intimate. The Hamburg firm of Magnus Jr. with a branch office in Liege (Lüttich/Luik), Belgium, specialized in supplying arms to Arabia, Yemen, Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt.
In the summer of 1935, at a time when Fidrmuc had committed himself to full cooperation with the Abwehr, and was scouting the field for suitable intelligence sources abroad, Hammerschlag introduced him to to the buying agent in the Kingdom of Yemen, and old friend of Magnus Jr. who travelled each year to Europe in the interest of his government under the assumed name of Ahmed Ibrahim Saruk, Plenipotentiary of the Highness the Iman of Yemen.
When in Hamburg, Saruk always spent three weeks in the home of Hammerschlag, and was here, in the summer of 1935, that Fidrmuc was able to sound out the man and win him over as an agent. He found him to be a fanatic Anglophobe because the British, he related, had killed his family in one of the border skirmishes near Aden. Fidrmuc, who had undertaken two extensive business trips to the Near East and India in the Twenties and was familiar with that part of the globe, had little difficulty in winning his confidence. Both of them remained on the best of terms throughout the years until the Autumn of 1944m when Germany's plight in the Mediterranean and elsewhere made further cooperation senseless.
2. The Ostro Agent Nos(?)
In Saruk, Fidrmuc had found one of the most outstanding intelligence sources whose reports during the impending World War II were destined to enhance the value and the prestige of Fidrmuc's Ostro reports in Berlin, and to prove to be a logical adjunct to the intelligence reaching Fidrmuc from his source in England.
Saruk, whose real name, as he later confessed to Fidrmuc, was Ahmed Isari, had been born Jewish but converted to Mohammedanism in order to pursue a diplomatic career in the Mohamedan state of Yemen, where he had succeeded in becoming influential in the economic branch of the Court.
His primary motive for cooperating with Fidrmuc was violent hatred of the British and a burning desire for vengeance. In addition, he no doubt harboured personal political ambition in Aden, Somaliland, and Sudan. Since their friendship began as a business relationship, it is certain that Isauri fostered the connection in the interest of the business facilities which Fidrmuc was in a position to accord him. Being himself very wealthy, he was not interested in the type of money Fidrmuc could offer, but he did accept → expensive gifts in recognition of his services.
(12) (since 12 July 2023)
KV 2/198-1, page 43b
expensive gifts in recognition of his services. Fidrmuc is certain that he received a substantial share of the annual Italian subvention, which he collected each year from Mussolini for the Iman of Yemen, a sum which in 1936 exceeded a total of 500,000 dollars.
In the Autumn of 1935, Isauri returned to the Near east, after having promised to supply Fidrmuc with intelligence reports. As was his custom, Fidrmuc assigned his new agent a short arbitrary code name. Called him Mos.
AOB: whether all this being the actual truth I cannot judge.
3. The Mos Reports to Hamburg.
a. Method of Communication.
Fidrmuc and Mos agreed to correspond with one another via normal airmail channels in either French or Italian. The secret messages contained in the letters would be written in secret ink, and both would use the same ink. (Small hard balls of cotton, greyish white in color and 3-4 mm in diameter, One pallet in a glass of water rendered the ink. The developer was a diluted household cleaning fluid (Salzsäure). Fidrmuc was to address his letters to the following addresses:
(1) Monsieur Henri Saunier
c/o Silbermann, Diskin & Kaplan
Jerusalem (or Jaffa)
(2) Abdul Basr Bendramin
c/o Agencia Lloyd Triestino
(3) Ahmed Isauri
Mos was to address his letters for Fidrmuc to:
(1) Paul Fidrmuc
c/o Magnus Jr.
(2) Paul Fidrmuc
c/o Magnus Jr.
(3) Max Ramm, Kaffeeimporteur
in Familie Fritz M?eier.
Mos posted all his letters containing reports either in french Somaliland (Djibouti) or in Italian Eritrea (Massauna), never in British possessions.
The letters sent to Max Ramm contained offer for Mocha coffee. Ramm was chosen because he did business with Yemen. A letter for Fidrmuc was always included, and Fidrmuc obtained such letters from Ramm by explaining that he was engaged in smuggling arms to Yemen and could not write or receive mail directly. Mos wrote approximately once a month, whereas Fidrmuc addressed letters to him very rarely. Between 1936 and 1939, Mos also reported orally during his annual sojourn in Hamburg.
KV 2/198-1, page 44c
Of the numerous intelligence items which Mos reported in writing to Fidrmuc in the prewar years 1936 to 1939, Fidrmuc recalls the following:
(1) Exact details on the strength, equipment, armament, and location of the 6th, 7th and 8th British Divs in Egypt and Palestine.
(2) The fortification system of Aden, Perim and Sokatra
(3) The Irak levies.
(4) Details on British troops in Iran.
(5) Condition, strength, and equipment of RAF squadrons in Aden, Sudan, Egypt, Palestine, and Iraq.
(6) All depots of gasoline of over one thousand gallons in the aforementioned areas.
(7) Coal depots at Port Said and Aden.
(8) Capacity of port at Suakin, Haifa, Suez etc.
(9) Size, location, etc., of numerous ammunition dumps in the Near-East, such as Ramlehm Ismaila, Lydda, etc.
(10) The location of airports and their condition.
(11) The Sudan Forces.
(12) Location of almost every British naval ship in the Red Sea, at Alexandria, in Palestinian ports, such as Haifa, etc.
In their annual meetings in Hamburg, Mos was able to go into a great more detail, reporting, among other things, on the following:
(1) The organization of British Intelligence in Arabia, which, he claimed, was centered chiefly around Galathy, Hankey & Co., steamship agents and bankers in Port Said, Suakin, Hodeida, Aden, Basrah, etc. His report contained figures on British payments to all the rulers, beginning with the mighty King Ibn-Saud and continuing down to the petty tribal princesses. During the Ethiopian campaign he reported on the activities of the British Intelligence against Italy.
(2) Mos was able to report in detail on underground movements in Egypt, anti-British trends throughout the Near East, etc.
(3) Reports on British Near Eastern policy, on which he was extremely well informed.
(4) Mos also related how the British succeeded in ousting the Gulf Oil Company of Houston, Texas, and the Sinclair Oil Company of Galveston, Texas, from Arabia, after these companies had already begun negotiations to permit drilling, The British, he claimed, also undermined negotiations which otgher American interests were carrying on with Saudi Arabia.
c. Payments to Mos.
Fidrmuc estimates that he gave Mos presents to the value of approximately 9,500 dollars in the period 1936 to 1939. The monetary value was, as stated above, of monor importance to Mos, who seemed more interested in fostering straight friendship with → Fidrmuc.
KV 2/198-1, page 45d
Fidrmuc. In 1938, he made Fidrmuc a present of a piece of antique Arabian jewellery. This was the only time, as Fidrmuc points out, that he received something from an agent instead of vice versa."
4. The Mos Reports to Copenhagen.
a. Method of Communication.
When Fidrmuc moved to Copenhagen at the outbreak of the war, he instructed Mos to communicate with him by writing his messages in secret ink on the inside wrapper of a sample parcel of Mocha coffee not exceeding five hundred grams in weight, which he was to address to Paul Fidrmuc, c/o Main Customs House, Copenhagen, Denmark. In previous experiments, Fidrmuc had found this inside wrapping to be of exceptionally strong quality and excellent for writing with invisible ink. Mos also sent sample parcels of Ethiopian goat hair, which is widely imported in Denmark. Fidrmuc had no difficulty in picking up the main packages at the Main Customs Office and developing the messages.
While in Denmark during the Autumn of 1939, Fidrmuc received in all five messages from Mos in the manner described above. He himself sent only two or three messages to Mos in peacetime.
AOB: I consider that we should discontinue transcribing this particular document; as it becomes a seeming-less ongoing.
KV 2/198-1, page 54a (minute 233a)
Arising out of the interrogation of Paul Georg Fidrmuc @ Ostro, free-lance Abwehr agent operating from Lisbon during the war, he give the following three items of information which may be of interest to your section.
1. "The proprietor of the restaurant Galgo (behind the Teatro Nacional), a White Russian who had owned the Bender bar in Berlin, came from France to Portugal in 1940 and opened the restaurant. His mistress was an English lady. They both lived in Parede (near Estoril). I could not remember his name. He cooperated with the S.D. (Transport Schmidt), but in my opinion was working for both sides. His restaurant was very much frequented by the English Colony."
2. "Kunsul Fritz Rüggenberg. (Frederico) Barcelona. I cannot remember anymore, if I have reported on him already. Age about 72-73, very nice old man. I liked him very much. He has a villa in the Calle Vico, where we both (including his wife Rigmor) were 2-3 invited. He had a son, Captain (Hptm.) in the German General Staff. Was at the end of the war in Prague, thereafter PW, got free end of 1945 and returned to Spain through France with false papers. Arrived in Barcelona in January 1946. The father (Frederico) was in the first world war camouflaged as Turkish Consul in Palma and later in Barcelona. For the German I.S. (Intelligence Service). He was before 1914 and after 1919 at the I.G. Farben (after the first world war the biggest Chemical conglomerate in the world), but stopped working 1936, fled to Germany, entered the Spanish General Staff in 1937 as I.S. Officer against the Reds. Speciality: Russian officers in Barcelona. I know nothing of his Civil war activities, but he got 2 → high Spanish medals (The Isabella and Fernando Gold medal and another).
KV 2/198-1, page 55b
high Spanish medals (The Isabella and Fernando Gold medal and another). He is an old naval officer. Another son was leader of a Submarine Flottilla end of the war operating from Norway, I think he is now a PW in England. During the 2nd world war, mainly in I,S. work naval affairs. One of his helpers was Bracun, who was with me together as Hohenasperg and returned to Spain in October (1946). Rüggenberg's nom-de-guerre was Frederico. I think he was a very capable I.S.. amn. Broad minded, very well educated, excellent manners and in his younger years a great "man-about-town". He knew the world. His extradition to Germany was refused by the Spanish. He was a personal friend of General Moscardo, Martinez Campos, Orgaz and others. Knew Franco quite well. Of his (probably many) V-Leute I do not know any except the following: Baladur of Calle Valencia. A born Turk. Had worked for "Frederico" already in the first world war. Did business with France. If I am not mistaken, I mentioned him before. Baladur is probably a Russian agent now. Frederico suspected this already end of the war and warned me against him. Baladur approached me when I was in March 1945 in the Ritz Hotel and proposed business. Some insignificant details made me cautious. I spoke to Frederico about him, and than came the warning. - Perhaps the one interesting fact amongst the whole Rüggenberg-complex is the following : During the war was a Russian Officer at Barcelona; in the past week I tried to remember his name, but could not. Only now, when I started to think of Frederico, it came back to me. It is either Piotr Gorsekev or Potr Gorshkew, or Gorshkov. This Russian officer has been probably a man, whom Frederico won for Franco in 1938, or early 1939. The rank I do not know, but I suppose at that time a Capt. (Hptm.) or Major. This Russian officer was during the war not in Russia but abroad and was "geführt" by Kuehlenthal (KV 2/102) of Madrid. He is supposed to have been a very good man. In any case he was not under Frederico's orders, but under Kuehlenthal's Frederico "handed him over" to Kuehlenthal. Why I don't know. I also do not know, where the Russian was. I suppose in one of the English speaking countries.
"I will explain how I came to know. A complete list of → all Russian officers who had served in 1936-1939
KV 2/198-1, page 56c
all Russian officers who had served in 1936-1939 at Barcelona was shown to me by Obst. Hansen in 1944 (before June 1944). The reason was this:- It was supposed by Obst. Hansen ( Since March 1944 Leiter der Abwehr and thereafter Leiter des Milamts / Amt Mil) that amongst these officers was one who had been in Tome in 1940, had lived in the Pension Milton under another name. The list showed photos and names. I could not find that I had seen one of them before. Amongst them was also an officer with the above name. On one of the last days before the capitulation of Germany (8th May 1945 at Reims), I went to Frederico, and enquired if he had any direct news, or something for me and so on. Of course everybody was very excited. The consulate like a bee-hive. Frederico was very depressed, I too. He was packing and destroying all he had in his coffre-fort (Safe?), burning papers etc. etc. He said to me :'Well I hope may agents will get through somehow and not be caught.'(AOB: the Legation in Madrid paid all regular personnel a ½-year salary) He took one envelope after the other, destroyed it, and said 'Nothing important in it, but better is better.' Then he showed me a group of Russian officers standing in front on the Plaza Cataluna near the Hotel Colon, before it was destroyed. I recognised one face and ask him who he was, told him what Obst. Hansen has said to me> He mentioned the name. I replied: 'Yes, that is the same! How does it come in your files?' He had never spoken to me before of anything that concerned his network, but now the capitulation inevitable and he is so excited, he said: "ein ausgezeichneter V-Mann, aber nicht für mich gewesen. Habe ihn kurz vor Zusammenbruch Kataloniens ergattert. Er war eine grosse Nummer bei Kuehlenthal (Kühlenthal) (KV 2/102)." After a while he said "Ein Jammer, dass er so schlecht english spricht." I did not ask any questions. I am certain that Frederico is now cooperating with the Spanish in anti-Russian C.I. (Central Intelligence)."
3. "SIR. (Spanish Intelligence ; or Nejedly Frantisek @ SIR ?). It is improbable that SIR entered the German I.S. (Intelligence Service) later → on again.
KV 2/198-1, page 57d
on gain. Anyhow his wife, living at Hodonin had no news from her husband in spring 1944. Now it will be different.
"In this connection I remember the following incident: In October 1939 I went from Copenhagen to Berlin. Discussed situation etc. amply with Pruch (Pruck?) (AOB: unknown to me), Pieckenbrock (Leiter I Berlin situated then at Tirpitzufer), Canaris (Admiral; Commanding Officer of the entire OKW Amt Ausland/Abwehr). Major Pruck (Pruch?) proposed the following: He has had an excellent man in Poland. He had been in the Staff of the X. Polish Army Corps. He had fled to Rumania, as so many other Polish Army Corps. Pruck wanted to use him against Russia in Russia and the man was willing. The name was Dombrovski (Dombrowski?) Christian name and rank I cannot remember, but I think Lt. Col. I can remember the name so well, because my Commander in 1918 of the 44th Sturm-Bataillon, in which I commanded the 2nd Company was a Capt. Dombrovski, also a Pole. However they were not identical. This man of Pruck had served in an Austrian Ulan regiment 1914-1916, later on in the Polish Legion under Austrian Command. His nom-de-guerre was "Ossip". He had been in communication with the German Abwehr by wireless also during the September Campaign (German invasion of Poland 1st September 1939). Pruck proposed that I should 'führen' Ossip from Copenhagen. (grammar incorrectness). Wireless of course was excluded (AOB: as was the case in many countries, such as Sweden, Switzerland and likely also Denmark). He asked me, whether I could prepare a plan, how to work with him together. I should prepare a plan, how to work with him together. I should submit the plan for approval and then a meeting could be arranged with Ossip in Germany in November or December (1939). I agreed to it under the condition that I could 100% as I chose and nobody else should have to mix in it. Back at Copenhagen I worked out a plan, submitted it. It was excepted. I should have met Ossip end of November at Rostock. However, I was arrested and the whole scheme came to nothing. I never heard again of Ossip and what has become of him (Fidrmuc was convicted and imprisoned in Denmark. Though, the Germans invaded Denmark and Norway on 9th April 1940 and Fidrmuc, logically, was set free). From Italy and Portugal of course, impossible to lead the man, from Copenhagen it would have been possible."
B.2.b./JC/PF 64447 6.3.47
KV 2/198-1, page 59
Nejededly Frantisek @ SIR (dealt with down page 56c), a Czech officer, aged about 45; an agent used Fidrmuc against Russia before the war; last contact with him early summer (thus before the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of 24 August 1939?) 1939, when he wrote from Russia. He forwarded reports for the Ironmonger to London (G2024 G2024return) to London. Extracts from these reports were used by the (British) periodical and then the original document "on back of which were secret writing messages" were sent to Fidrmuc in Hamburg. Wife living in Hodonin in Spring 1944.
KV 2/198-1, page 62a
8th March 1947
I would have liked to have been able to analyse these reports more carefully but I hope that these comments will be helpful to you.
First I should say that the papers have been seen under pledge of secrecy by:-
Lt.Col. Binney ) 1st of Permit Branch
Mr. P.V. Harry )
Miss McCansinsh ) 1st of Special Examiners
Miss Norris )
Dr. S. Collins late of Posting Department
Colonel Allan P.O. Investigation Branch
Colonel Todd has also discussed the matter with Mr. Acton, late of the Finance Branch.
2. The reports were discussed in some detail at the meeting at 271 High Holborn on the 26th February (1947) last at which Colonel Todd, Lt.Col. Binney, Mr. Harry, Miss Morris, Dr. Collins, Colonel Allan and myself were present. Subsequently Colonel Todd was to have informed Sir Edwin Herbert of the position, and to have had further discussion with Mr. Acton, but owing too illness, he has been prevented from doing this. I propose to let Sir Edwin Herbert see the papers en route to you.
3. In broad outline the salient features of Fidrmuc's case are:-
(i) He planned his arrangements for the evasion of cencorship before the war;
(ii) Although known to M.I.5., apparently his planned arrangements were not suspected:
(iii) He used as contact in the U.K., an allied diplomatic embassy employee:
(iv) He used second class mail matter as a channel for secret writing.
Given these features evasion of censorship is not impractible and some credence must be given to Fidrmuc's story, though in detail there are features which make it seem that his claims may be exaggerated.
Incoming (a) Possible method in the early stage of the war. Secret writing in ordinary first class mail from neutral country would almost certainly have been found later in the war. presumably a diplomatic address was not being used.
Outward. (a) Possible in the early stages of the war when examination → arrangements for second class mail, not under permit, had not been perfected.
(13) (since 17 July 2023)
KV 2/198-1, page 63b
arrangement for second class mail, not under permit, had not been perfected.
(b) Possible in the early stages of the war. Secret writing in ordinary business letters to a neutral country would almost certainly have been detected later in the war.
6. TOR. (Dr. Rudolf Ratschitzky)
Incoming. (b). A letter addressed to someone c/o Czech Legation would not receive diplomatic privilege in normal course. In the early stages of the war the letter with secret ink might have slipped through.
Incoming. (c)(i) Printed matter addressed simply to the "Czechoslovak Legation London, would almost certainly have been treated harmless.
(c) (ii). Printed matter to a private address would almost certainly have been released without any special examination for secret writing.
Outward. (a) & (b) Propaganda. This material ought not to have been passed through censorship except under permit. In early 1940 censorship was not fully organised. The letters with propaganda may have got through.
(c) Prospectuses. No permit was required and it is probable that the letters, whether sent as first class or second class matter, would be released without being sent specially for testing for secret writing.
Incoming. (a). Letters addressed to the Secretary of the Czech legation in London would be privileged and released unopened. letters addressed to provincial addresses would probably be opened and referred tp the Finance section. They would probably be released by this section without any special reference to Testing department, for secret writing test.
Although incoming letters from Portugal were subject to special censorship examination, with special reference to testing for secret writing, the semi-diplomatic/finance aspect may have been sufficient to outweigh normal suspicion of Portuguese mail in the mind of the examiners.
I have not been able to talk to mr. Acton about the arrangements for disposing of shares.
Incoming (b) Stamp catalogues. A registered letter addressed to the secretary, Czechoslovak legation, London, would have been regarded as privileged and released unopened.
(c) Cosmetic Wrapping paper: The packages addressed to the Secretary, Czechoslovak Legation, London, would probably have been released unopened. If addressed to someone, c/o Legation, they would almost certainly have been opened and packing removed in accordance with censorship instruction. Addressed to a private individual at Windsor the package would almost certainly have been opened and the advertising removed before the release of the package for delivery.
(d) Reviews: It is likely that these would have been released as harmless if sent by second class mail without any reference to testing for secret writing.
(e) leaflets & pamphlets: It is not clear if these were sent by first class or second class mail. It is doubtful if they would receive more than a cursory examination if addressed to anyone c/o the Czechoslovak Legation. If more than a cursory examination had been given the arrangements for underlining certain words would probably have been noticed and suspicion aroused. The Legation address would probably disarm suspicion and account for only cursory examination.
KV 2/198-1, page 64c
The Windsor addressed packets would be due to be scrutinised as a printed paper before released.
Incoming (f). I have been able to discuss this arrangement with Mr. Acton, and I don't know enough to comment myself on banking arrangements.
(e) Invasion plan from page 6.
The air mail from Great Britain to Lisbon was suspended from the end of March to June 1944. Surface mail was delayed for one week before despatch and the transit time for surface mail was probably not less than three weeks in all.
Diplomatic privilege was withdrawn on the 17th April (1944) after which date all correspondence from Czechoslovak Embassy was due to ordinary censorship examination. In spite of this the booklet might not have been subjected to special examination and testing for security writing.
Although, therefore, the booklet might have been sent forward after passing through censorship, there seems to be no possibility of despatch other than by surface route, with about 3/4 weeks' transit overall time.
Outward D. page 7.
It is stated that these communications were sent by unregistered air mail. It is important to know whether they were enclosed in envelopes franked by the Czechoslovak Legation or in ordinary private envelopes.
(a) British propaganda material was due to be despatched only under permit. Was the Czech Economic Advisory Associated also used for despatch of this material ?
If the propaganda material was enclosed in an ordinary letter, the letter should have been returned to sender.
AOB: the next is essential - as Fidrmuc pretends that this was a means of his way of communicating.
(b) (c) Hotel Leaflets. No permit was required. If these had been used for secret writing messages late in 1943 and 1944 in ordinary first class letters to Lisbon they would almost certainly have been sent for testing. Up to 1942 this is not so certain and perhaps unlikely.
(d) It seems likely that these were sent under diplomatic cover.
(f) Czechoslovak Legation material. This would probably be released with not more then cursory examination.
9. TOR. E. Page 7.
Again it is not stated if this correspondence or the packages were enclosed in Czechoslovak Legation official envelopes or wrapping.
Parcels to Spain could only be sent under permit. This doesn't seem to be practicable as a method of communicating by secret writing unless posted by the Czech Economic Advisory Association which apparently had a permit.
. . .
AOB: I prefer skipping this rather boring summary
KV 2/198-1, page 65partally
13. Mos (Fidrmuc's Middle East agent from Yemen)
Incoming. The information given under each of the headings is rather sketchy. There was an efficient Anglo/Egyptian censorship operating in Cairo and it seems surprising that ordinary letters, as distinct from diplomatic or quasi-diplomatic letters, with secret writing did not arose suspicion, at least during the later war years, coming from Portugal, to the Middle East. It must be assumed that the secret writing was well done, and the covering letter was accepted at its face value in each case.
15. Details of secret inks etc. Dr. Collins has said in conversation that all the method mentioned except Chinasol were known to him, and if material with secret writing as detailed had been submitted to the Testing department he is of the opinion it would have been detected without difficulty. Although Chinasol is not known by name to Dr. Collins, its use would not have presented any special difficulties in detection in the laboratory.
16. There is no more I feel I can add usefully There is obviously a case for the most thorough investigation of TOR.
It seems off that none in Lisbon suspected Fidrmuc during the war years as he was known to be an enemy agent before the war. The papers are interesting in emphasising the complexity of censorship and the difficulty in covering adequately the huge volume of mail matter with what must always be a comparatively small censorship staff.
17. I shall be obliged if you will let me have a copy of this note after typing so that I can give it to Colonel Todd to keep with one copy of your report which I have kept for him. And if you will return your letter to me of the 20th February.
Sgd. R.H. Locke
KV 2/198-1, page 66 (minute 231a)
On 12.3.47 I called at Lazard Bros., 11 Old Broad Street, E.C.2. and saw Mr. W.A. Acton who was during the war financial advisor to Postal Censorship. With him I discussed financial aspects of the Fidrmuc case and he told me the following matters of interest.
He was of the opinion that the shares, so called by Fidrmuc, were in fact Bearer Bonds not registered bonds. These Bearer Bonds are, to all intents and purposes, as useful as currency notes or postal orders, and anyone possessing them can use them. Following the fall of France, the Treasury here prohibited the import into the U.K. of Sterling and Bearer Bonds. This financial ban still holds good. The Germans, however, continued to try to get Stirling into the U.K. through America and through neutral countries.
When a letter or official bank statement was received in Postal Censorship which had Bearer Bonds as an enclosure, Mr. Acton was of the opinion that an examiner would hesitate to have such bonds examined for secret writing, possibly thinking that testing such piece of paper might alter the value of it. he considers it likely that the examiner would pass such postal packet immediately to the Finance Section, considering it was primarily of interest to them. The Finance Section of Postal Censorship had no censorship examiner as such, but considered the financial aspect of the communication and not the censorship examination of it. It may be supposed, therefore, that when Fidrmuc's official communications addressed to the Czechoslovak Legation, Midland Bank, arrived in Postal Censorship, they would be passed swiftly by the examiner to the Finance Section.
In accordance with Censorship procedure, the Bank of England were informed every time such Bearer Bond came in, but they usually allowed them to pass on, it they were addressed to an official postal address such as a foreign legation.
It can therefore be seen that although, on paper, Censorship procedure should have picked up just such secret communications as Fidrmuc sent, yet it can be seen that in actual fact it was highly likely that he managed to get his communications through to his agent in the U.K. undetected.
PF. 64447/B.2.b/JC. 14.3.47 J. Chenhalls.
KV 2/198-1, page 76 (minute 223a)
C.2. - Group Captain Archer.
Arising out of the Fidrmuc interrogation (in the American Zone by G-2)
Filipe. "I have reported on a meeting in the Posada of Elvas with Obstlt. Engelhorn. (AOB: the latter had been executed after the failed assassination attempt on 20th July 1944 on Hitler) I remember the following incident there. TOR had sent a report on a new type of airports. Extremely long, I think of ½ English miles, but rather narrow and with side connections (Zufahrtstrassen) 4 or 5 on the whole length. Berlin doubted this. These airports were reported to be in East Anglia counties. Berlin's opinion was that those were not airports but "Startbahnen" (runways) for some sort of V.1 rockets, which the Allies would employ against Germany. Von Engelhorn told me (Fidrmuc) that many of my reports were constantly "supervised" (überprüft) through Filipe. Felipe - so said von Engelhorn - had an excellent man in London, a Communist (he said a roter") in good position. (AOB: the British thought only of Germans whom hardly escaped their superior supervision. But they actually were blind for their own citizen. Think of: Klaus Fuchs! Whom betrayed Britain for just not two decades, with utmost secret and sensible atomic-bomb science!) in a good position. My reports (from TOR) were sent to England for verification. Not all of them, but those which were doubtful. Von Engelhorn said that Filipe had wireless communication with this man. He told me also the nom-de-guerre of this man, but try as I will, I cannot remember it anymore. Perhaps when it is mentioned to me I may remember. He told me: 'Your report on the extra long airfield has now been fully confirmed by Filipe's London man. Your man was correct. We also have now other confirmation by our reconnaissance aeroplane photos.' I do not know who Filipe was. Naturally somebody in the Madrid Abwehr, I am certain that this name will be known here."
PF 64447/B.2.b?JC 6.3.47 J. Chenhalls.
KV 2/198-2, page 1a
28 June 1898 Born at Jaegersdorf, Austria (Sudetenland).
1904-1915 Attended public school and Gymnasium (a kind of Lyceum, but including Greek and Latin) in Lundenburg, Moravia.
1915 Volunteered for 21st Schuetzenregiment, St. Poelten. Fought on Italian and Russian fronts. Five times decorated.
4. Nov. 1918 Taken prisoner as lieutenant in Italy, escaped and returned home.
1919 Became Czech subject as result of Treaty of St. Germain.
1919-1921 Studied philosophy at the University of Vienna (Wien); also studied at the Welthandelshochschule.
1921 Accepted position with export-import firm of Glogner & Co in Lübeck, Soon became manager of Export Department.
Aug 23 Married Rigmor Hvalsoe, daughter the Danish Senator and businessman Einar Hvaloe
1923 Undertook combined honeymoon and business trip for Glogner & Co to British India, visiting Bombay, Karachi, Lahore, Delhi, Allahabad, Calcutta, Derdchealing (Darjeeling), Rangoon, and Madras. Sold successfully iron steel, machinery, hardware, and cement.
1924 By arrangement with Glogner, established the export interests of Glogner & Co as a separate firm known as Fidrmuc & Co, Lübeck.
1926 Undertook business trip to Portugal, Spain, Portuguese colonies, and South and East Africa.
1927 Undertook second business trip to India and Ceylon.
1928 Moved his offices to Hamburg, divorced himself from Glogner and established his own private firm Paul Fidrmuc, Hamburg.
May 34 First contact with Abwehr through an interview a Dr. Scholze (Scholtze?)(Stolze?) in Berlin. AOB: we will later learn more about the real circumstances. (X2040 X2040return)
Oct 34 Introduced to Obstlt. Pieckenbrock in Berlin. Was requested to extend his reports to include construction of new railroads, factories, shipyards, etc. Also was requested to purchase arms, inventions, patents, and ammunition for testing in Germany.
Feb 35 Requested by Pieckenbrock to establish, if possible agents abroad. Dispatched a Dr. Breit as agent to England.
KV 2/198-2, page 2b
Summer 35 Recruited Ahmed Isauri as agent (Nos) for Near East.
Summer 36 Meeting with Adm. Canaris.
Oct 36 Joined Sudeten Party (Partei)
Oct 36 Unsuccessful attempt to recruit agent in France.
Oct 38 Acquired German citizenship by virtue of Munich Agreement (late September 1938). Meeting with Pieckenbrock, Obstlt. Scholtz and Major Pruck; agreement worked out for Fidrmuc's activity in case of war.
Oct 38 Recruited German agent for England, Dr. Rudolf Ratschitzky (Tor). (AOB: This might be considered, in this way, not true. Albeit, that both men originated from the same area in Sudetenland; by then Austria-Hungarian territory; due to British/French secret promises during WW I: - that in the event of Entente Victory, the Czechs would obtain independence)
Oct 38 Recruited agent for France, Max Gruber (Ruf).
Nov 38 Trip to Warsaw (Warschau)
Feb 39 Recruited agent for Russia, Frantisek Nejedly (Sir).
Feb 39 Trip to London; conference with Tor.
Aug 39 Moved to Copenhagen with cover of correspondent for DAZ. (Deutsche ? Zeitung)
Nov 39 Arrested as spy by Danish Police
Jan 40 Sentenced to eighteen month after pleading guilty
Feb 40 Returned to Berlin Prisoner exchange
Feb 40 Proceeded to Rome to carry on Abwehr activity from there
Jun 40 Moved from Rome to Como
Jun 40 Returned to Berlin after Italian declaration of war.
Jul 40 Entered Portugal through Spain with cover of businessman and journalist (as partner in the firm Brucker-Traus) Established myself in Estoril (AOB: first establishing himself at the "Hotel du Parque"; where he, by the way, already had been spied upon, by means of hotel-room-maids on behalf of S.I.S.)
Sep 40 Contact with Karsthoff (Karsthof?) of KO Portugal to establish communication with Berlin. Intensive Abwehr activity from 1940 to 1945 (AOB: but I quite doubt this as to, my understanding, 'Ludovico' (Karsthoff) (both alias') arrived during the course of 1941/42 becoming Leiter K.O. Portugal)
May 1945 Moved to Barcelona (AOB: he moved already in March 1945 to Barcelona)
Feb. 46 Repatriated to Camp 76 (AOB: US Zone of Germany, after quite some pressure put upon the Spanish Government) (← J2026 J2026return)
Mar 46 (?) Transferred to Zuffenhausen Camp 78
May 46 Transferred NISC Oberursel.
2. Initial Collaboration with the Abwehr.
Fidrmuc first began working for the Abwehr in May 1934, when he was requested by a Dr. Stolze (Stoltz?) of the Abwehr Hq. Berlin (from his description Fidrmuc assumes it as Obst. Franz Bentivegni (DE version https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Eccard_von_Bentivegni) (AOB: according Wikipedia he possessed then the rank of a Hptm. (Captain). In 1936 he became a Major; as so often people using the last known rank, but in respect to the actual fact we should also consider the line of someone's actual career. Both - Pieckenbrock and Bentivegni, left the Abwehr as to obtain their General's course (Patent) and became a General-Lt. at the end of the war. Consequently - both latter men were for quite a long time after the War a P.o.W.), later Chief of Abwehr III (AOB: counter espionage, which wasn't the correct Amt / Referat, therefore we should consider Pieckenbrock, as he was, up to late 1942, Amts / Referatsleiter I Berlin)... to submit reports on the disposition of strategic raw materials in foreign countries, a to keep a close check on the international armament trade, samples of foreign weapons and ammunition for comparison with German products. (AOB: a clear I-H objection and wasn't a III thus counter-espionage objection)
KV 2/198-2, page 3c
At a conference in Berlin in February 1935,
Obstlt.Major Pieckenbrock asked Fidrmuc if he knew of any person in Hamburg willing to go abroad, ostensibly as a refugee but actually as an informant for the Abwehr. Fidrmuc, who up to that time had been gathering his intelligence from business acquaintances within Germany (as a journalist?) and was desirous (keen) of having a good source abroad, suggested the name of Dr. Rudolf Beit, his lawyer in Hamburg, who was the nephew of the founder of the famous De Beers Diamond Syndicate of South Africa, A Beit, a multimillionaire residing in London. Fidrmuc was able to suggest this person, since Dr. Beit had already sought his aid to suggest this person, since Dr. Beit had already sought his aid to plan tp leave Germany without sacrificing his fortune (AOB: we may consider that Dr. Beit was Jewish, and maybe already, in this early stage, was foreseeing what soon may occurring in 'anti-Semitic' Germany) The necessary arrangements were made, and Dr. Beit left for England in the Spring of 1935, taking a substantial portion of his fortune with him and the promise that the remainder of his possessions in Germany would be unmolested.
Beit sent Fidrmuc valuable reports on British finance and industry, but his reports on military intelligence which were sent directly to Berlin, were considered valueless by Abwehr, and in 1936 it was decided to dispense with his reports. Fidrmuc, however, continued to receive the Beit reports, for in addition to economic intelligence, they often contained interesting items or British Society, such as statements made by Lord Vansitterart (Van Sittart?) in the Labour Union Club, remarks made by Lady Gort concerning the journey of her husband, Lord Gort, Chief of Staff, to France, or details of plans to construct decentralized small factories on the Team Valley Trading Estate. Beit would report, for instance, that Sir Bruce Gardener, later head of the Society of British Aircraft Manufactures, had a chorus-girl friend named Nelly, incidental intelligence which Fidrmuc made use of in 1939 by having his agent (Dr. Rudolf Ratschitzky (Tor)? AOB: which I strongly doubt being true) (in England get in touch with Nelly. Through her, his agent made the valuable acquaintance of the Secretary of the Society of British Aircraft Manufacturers.
Dr. Beit also helped Fidrmuc to establish connections with Borges Irmaos, bankers in Lisbon, and with the industrial diamond trade in Portugal.
During his short period of activity in England as an agent, Dr. Beit communicated with Berlin through a letter-box in England. From there his letters were forwarded to the German Embassy in London, reaching Berlin in the diplomatic pouch (bag).
In 1938, Dr. Beit died of pneumonia in Bournemouth. He is survived by his widow, who, Fidrmuc believes, is still in England.
3. The Ostro Agent Tor. (AOB: as I consider this aspect as being untrue, I prefer to skip it)
KV 2/198-2, page 21
Paul Joseph (?) Fidrmuc @ "Ostro", "CHB*" and Camoes
(the later, sometimes utilised instead of Ostro in the KOP W/T communications with HIOB in Berlin)
* (M2029 M2029return)
Although Fidrmuc was repatriated to the American Zone of Germany in
May(Feb1946) (J2026 J2026return), he did not give the full story of his activities until the end of the year (1946?). The following report and appendices summarize the competent experts. There is no doubt that Fidrmuc's success in handling his agents (??) lay in the fact that he was a freelance member of the Abwehr, answerable directly to Berlin, and using the local K.O. merely as a postbox for his reports. In addition to this, he took infinitive trouble to prepare draft plans before the war, and to hold in reserve alternative plans which could be put into operation at any moment during the war.
Full particulars of Fidrmuc are already on the files, and personal particulars are included in his two preliminary interrogations.
Recruitment for the Abwehr.
Fidrmuc was correspondent to a large number of German and international economic reviews. Through this work his name was brought to notice of the Abwehr by the editor of one of these journals. Dr. H. Müller. (AOB: they neglect the circumstance, which I considered in respect to his confrontation in being hampered by import quotas for canned fish products)(K2027 K2027return) An introduction to Admiral Canaris (Leiter OKW Amt Ausland/Abwehr) was also arranged by Major Hans Pirner (a cousin of Fidrmuc's wife). In May 1934 a Dr. Richard Stolze (Scholtze?) finally approached and recruited Fidrmuc (L2028 L2028return) and commissioned him to obtain information about the movements of strategic war material, foreign trade agreements, threatened shortages of strategic war material, etc. and general reports on the international armament trade.
Start of Abwehr Career.
Through his business travels in Portugal, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Hungary Italy, France and the U.K. and from Parsee friends in India, Fidrmuc was in a strong position to obtain commercial information. In October 1934 he was invited to Berlin and introduced to Dr. Schmidt @ Pieckenbrock (by then Hptm.) and asked to increase the number of his reports. In February 1935, after a conference in Berlin, Dr. Beit became a source in the U.K. on military affairs (worthless) and on social gossip (valuable), and provided very valuable contacts with the bankers Borgos Irmaos of Lisbon.
In the summer of 1935 Fidrmuc recruited his first important V-Mann Ahmed Ibrahim Saruk (Nos) At the end of 1935 or early 1936 the AWK (Amt für
WerkschaftlicheWirtschaftliche (?) Kriegsführung = M.E.W. (Ministry of Economic Warfare)) pretext was dropped and Fidrmuc was formally introduced to Admiral Canaris as a member of his staff in Summer 1936.
Immediately after the Munich Agreement DE (https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Münchner_Abkommen) EN (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich_Agreement) (29-30 September) of October 1938, Piekenbrock. Obst. Schultz (Schulz?) (later liaison officer with the Hungarian Army) and Major Pruck (who was Fidrmuc's spymaster until 1940) visited him in Hamburg, They informed him of his German citizenship, acquired through the incorporation of his birthplace in the Reich, and asked him whether, in the event of war, he would prefer to join up or serve the Abwehr abroad. Fidrmuc chose the second alternative, and on being promised independence of action and the necessary business cover by the Abwehr, started laying his plans to operate as head of an espionage network outside Germany.
During the next two years Fidrmuc recruited two extremely important agents "Tor" for the UK. (AOB: I don't believe Fidrmuc's story in this "Tor" respect) and "Ruf" in France. He managed to visit both of these agents and with them personally draft methods of communication to come into force on the outbreak of hostilities. In Autumn of 1939 Fidrmuc visited Warsaw (Warschau) (by then occupied by the Germans) with Pruck, but found this an unsatisfactory base from which to conduct operations, and by August 1939 he was established, with his wife (AOB: one of the points including his agreement with the Abwehr was - that his wife was accompanying him wherever he is allocated), in Denmark, having chosen this country because of its air connection with France and England, and its neutral status.
KV 2/198-2, page 22b + 23c
With his freedom of movement safeguarded by the Abwehr, his business flourished, and Fidrmuc was financially independent from 1934 to 1936. Between and 1939 a monthly sum of 3,000 Marks was given to him for expenses, and various business deals, engineered by the Abwehr, provided excellent means of increasing his income.
A. Denmark 1939.
Within a short time Fidrmuc was receiving reports from his principle agents (??), which he augmented with information gleaned from his own commercial contacts before passing on to Berlin. He soon became aware that the Danish authorities were interested in his correspondence, and his arrest in December 1939 was not entirely unexpected. However, he had taken careful steps to protect his sources, and alleges that none of them were jeopardised by his own arrest. He plead guilty to the charge of espionage, admitting that he had been communicating with countries at war with Germany, but refused to divulge his agents or methods of communication. The Danish court, satisfied that his activities had not been directed against their own country, sentenced him to 18 months' imprisonment; within a matter of weeks, however, an exchange agreement was signed, and Fidrmuc returned to Berlin.
C. Portugal; and Spain 1940-45 .
After the entry of Italy into the war, Fidrmuc moved to (the Iberian Peninsula). He lived first at San Sebastian, but as he found communications difficult from there, he moved to Oporto (Portugal), and within a few weeks finally settled in a house at Estoril, Lisbon (August 1940). (AOB: first for a while living at Hotel du Parque, in Estoril)
For the next five years Fidrmuc operated his network from Portugal making use of social contacts and obtaining all the information he could through his position as a member of the firm of Brucker-Traus Ltda. (originally a Belgium enterprise). Portugal was chosen by him as it had.
(a) no restriction on currency export and the sale of gold;
(b) good shipping connections with most countries in the world.
(c) a vast Colonial empire of its own;
(e) a mixed society where racial and social differences mattered lass than in Spain.
and (f) the advantage of being the route through which most travellers passed the East Africa, South America and the United Kingdom.
February(ca. May!) 1944 Fidrmuc went to Barcelona, thence to Berlin by 'plane, stayed there two weeks (receiving his K.v.K. Class 2, handed out by Obst. Hansen) and went two weeks on to Hamburg (among the parents of Rigmor Fidrmuc's wife). From there he travelled to Austria as to visit his home-town Lündenburg, then back to Berlin and home to Lisbon via Barcelona. (AOB, this was the first time since 1940 that Fidrmuc visited Germany, again)
By early 1945 he realised that Lisbon was played out, and it was becoming increasingly difficult to obtain locally information of value, so on 16 March 1945 Fidrmuc left Lisbon for Barcelona. He was not there long enough to work up a good connection, but he certainly did not waste time, and reports continued to get through to him from his agents.
The capitulation of Germany overtook him in Barcelona, and he was unable to return to Portugal. Early in 1946 he was repatriated to the American Zone of Germany, where he is at present interned. (AOB: the Americans necessitated quite some pressure put upon Spain before they agreed for his extradition to Germany, in January 1946)
(14) (since 21 July 2023)
KV 2/198-2, page 50
Fidrmuc's communications with Headquarters.
Prior to the War Fidrmuc's intelligence was sent by ordinary mail to Dr. Richard Stolze, Schlesischestrasse 15, Berlin. Later it was given personally to Freg.Kapt. Karl Burghardt of Ast. Hamburg. Whilst he was in Denmark Fidrmuc's reports were handed to the German Minister (head of the German Legation in Copenhagen) Rentefink at the Legation in Copenhagen at the end of the weekly press meeting. Rentefink in turn handed to Fidrmuc any fresh instructions or questionnaires from Berlin.
From Italy Fidrmuc passed his information through Bleibtreu, attached to the German Military Attaché in Rome. He handed over his information in a double with the words "Für Doktor Skapura" (AOB: Skapura was the office/section of HIOB, where later Oblt. Wilhelm von Carnap was employed/engaged) and the date clearly marked marked on the inner envelope. Once again he used the weekly press gathering as the occasion on which pass on his information.
One person only in K.O. Portugal was made responsible for dealing with Fidrmuc. This representative acted as post box and apart from this one contact with official circles Fidrmuc was allowed complete freedom of action (AOB: one of the condition of the settlements of 1935) During the four and a half years in Lisbon this representative was firstly Obstlt. van Karsthoff @ Ludovico (AOB: to my knowledge 'Ludovico' arrived in 1942; it might first have been Oblt. der Reserve Kurrer @ Kam
mler (AOB: Oblt. Otto Kurrer @ Kamler @ Heribert), and lastly in 1944 Obstlt. Dr. Aloys Schreiber (Leiter I-H @ Harry) (KV 2/3568).
After March 1945 in Spain Fidrmuc's reports handed to the Consul Rüggenberg (Frederico) in Barcelona who sent them by courier mail to Madrid. He then believes that Obstlt.
ObersturmführerKiekenbusch (Leiter Referat I-H in Madrid) forwarded them the same day to Lisbon where their contents were sent by W/T to Germany. (AOB: Why this was, as KO Spain station Sabine possessed also a W/T link with Berlin. Albeit, that the last mails went all via Berlin to Lisbon)
Fidrmuc had no W/T contact himself with Germany and states that his typewritten reports were invariably handed over in a double (sealed) envelope to the German officials as stated above. (AOB: Fidrmuc did not visit the Embassy/Legation himself; whom did so on his behalf isn't clear to me) He believes the Kamler (up to spring 1943) and (thereafter) possibly Dr. Schreiber opened these envelopes and sent extracts by W/T. to Berlin. (It is interesting to note that Schreiber under interrogation (KV 2/3568), denies that he opened them as he was informed that they were only of economic interest. It is not clear whether Fidrmuc used secret writing in these communications to headquarters, or whether Fidrmuc used secret writing in these communications to headquarters, or whether he sometimes included the original source report written in secret writing but Dr. Otto Haehnle of I-G (the section dealing with producing false documents, but also secret writings) stated under interrogation that Fidrmuc's letters direct from Lisbon to Berlin and the secret writing method used was Albert and Phillipp.
Fidrmuc's reports were not signed, but in the beginning he called them by various Christian names. After 1942 he numbered all reports with Roman numerals to mark the year, i.e.
Up to 1942:
Date Josephine (AOB??) Subject
Date III/15 (1943-Report No. 15) T. (Cover name for the U.K.)
All technical expressions were very carefully left in the original language. As far as Fidrmuc can recall his report on the D-Day operation (Isk 100131; to be dealt with in due course) was sent to Berlin as follows:
31.5.44 IV (1944)/Current number T. (= Tor)
(a) The report from Tor (AOB: I do not believe this source)
(b) Corroboration (validation) from Estoril sources: nil.
(c) Fidrmuc's own opinion - this report has great probability - giving various reasons.
KV 2/198-2, page 51 (minute 218b)
C.2. Group-Captain Archer, through B.3. Colonel T.A. Robertson (TAR).
As promised I attach herewith the full report on Tor (KV 2/240 .. KV 2/241; PF 603516) who was, as you remember, Fidrmuc alleged source in the UK, and another on this source Mos in the Middle East (Yemen). You have already given me some information on the contacts of Tor in this country but I am concerned that I cannot discover the identity of "Nellie", the girl-friend of Sit Bruce Gardiner.
With regard to the method of communication by W/T I would confirm that Most Secret Sources (decrypted German messages) disclose that such a message was sent by the Abwehr to their agent operating a wireless transmitter in London. He did not act on his instructions but prevaricated, but it is a startling confirmation of the truth of Fidrmuc's story. That such a W/T operator did function during war-time from London was, of course, known to the Twenty Committee (XX), and you may perhaps be able to put this request for check someone in the Air Ministry who was aware of this fact. In this way no additional distribution need to be given to the fact that a D.A. functioned from London during the war years.
Sgd. J. Chenhalls
KV 2/198-2, page 52 (minute 217a)
PF64447/B.3.a/RT. (R.T. Reed?)
S.I.M.E. (Secret Intelligence Middle East)
G.H.Q. (General headquarters, M.E.L.F.
1. Please refer to our telegram DS/503/47 of 20th February and previous correspondence on the Fidrmuc case.
2. Enclosed is a consolidated note containing all the information to date on (Ahmed Ibrahim Saruk @ Mos). In view of the fact that this agent is alleged to have been motivated by violent hatred of the British then love for the Germans, we think you will agree he continues to be of considerable security interest. We would therefore be grateful if you could check the story point by point and let us know whether you think it is true. In this connection, details of the whole Fidrmuc case have been passed to the Caretaker Section of Postal Censorship in London for checking against their records. It is possible, however, that there are still censorship records in the Middle East which are not available here, and, if so, we would be grateful if reference could also be made to them.
3. It would, of course, be extremely interesting if we could have Sarukm once he is identified and found - arrested and interrogated. This is probably impossible, but we would welcome your views as to how the case could be followed up.
R.T. Reed(?) (MI 5.)
for Sir Percy Sillitoe.
24th February, 1947.
KV 2/198-2, page 74 (minute 209a)
C.2. Group Captain Archer
During the war I investigated a number of alleged leakages of information concerning Bomber Command targets. The reports of leakage always referred to the Town "target for tonight" and strangely enough not to factories or target systems such as "oil" or "railways".
Leakage of information about town targets was in fact highly improbable, because (i) the selection of the target was not made by C in C Bomber Command until 9.30 a.m. on the day it was attacked; as it depended on strategic considerations such as weather and fighter cover which constantly changed (ii) the German Abwehr must have been aware of this and we know realised that we attacked all town of a certain size. Moreover, I was able to show by the movements of German fighters at the time of the raid and messages we intercepted from their fighter control that they never had pre-knowledge.
On the other hand, a leakage of information about a 'system' of targets or the priority of factory targets was possible, though we have no information that such a leakage did occur.
In view of this I find it difficult to believe that Fidrmuc would be 'briefed' by the German Abwehr in the way suggested. The Abwehr would be unlikely to risk a valuable means of communication from U.K. to obtain information which they would know would be unlikely to prove of value.
KV 2/198-2, page 77a (minute 219a??) (Q2033 ↓↓↓↓ Q2033return)
U.35's (please notice first: N2030 N2030return) Preliminary Oral Report on the Interrogation of Paul Fidrmuc @ Ostro @ Camoes, at M.I.S. Centre, U.S. Army, Germany.
On the 3rd January 1947 U.35 was shown at M.I.S. Centre, U.S. Army, a lengthy statement by Fidrmuc to his Case Officer, Mr. Newham. After a perusal of this statement U.35 interrogated Fidrmuc on the 3td and 4th January in presence of Newham. After this interrogation U.35 left for London in order to equip himself with fresh briefs based on the results of Fidrmuc's statement and the two interrogations that followed.
Fidrmuc did not claim a high percentage of veracity for the naval reports collected from his contacts in Portugal. He claimed that his reports on army matters were better. best were his reports on the Allied Air Forces.
Fidrmuc stated that he had during the war three first-rate contacts, dating from before the war.
1. Dr. Rudolf Ratschitzky @ "Tor" (AOB: I myself do not believe in the real existence of Tor), "the best agent of all".
"Tor" worked from London. he was Fidrmuc's cousin once-removed. Fidrmuc gave the following description of "Tor": Born 1897, height - 5' 9"", wife G. Eisinger sister of Irene Eisinger. "Tor" started work for the Abwehr in England in May 1938 at a monthly salary of £50. His reports were written in secret ink. Up to August 1939 "Tor" had sent about seven or eight reports. "Tor" was a very close friend of Fidrmuc (both men originating from Sudetenland): they had been to school together in Lündenburg. before the outbreak of the war "Tor" sent his reports to Fidrmuc by the following means: he wrote private and business letters to Henryk West, Grain Merchant in Hamburg. he wrote his messages in secret ink on the backs of price lists which he enclosed. Fidrmuc told West that he was interested in price lists of grain and that he would like to receive them when West had finished with them. In this way he collected the messages. Fidrmuc sent his communication to "Tor" through travel offices in England under an assumed name and posted from Hamburg or Bremen (there existed a Nest of Ast Hamburg in Bremen). "Tor" had visiting cards printed for these assumed names, presented the cards to the travel offices and collected the correspondence waiting for him there. reports sent before the outbreak of the war dealt with mobile divisions, new squadrons of the R.A.F., air ports, shadow factories in Birmingham, views of the 3.7 air gun, etc. Ratschitsky started the war with a fund of £1,200 sterling.
KV 2/198-2, page 78b
Fidrmuc, before the war, was operating from Copenhagen. In 1940, after having been imprisoned by Danes for espionage, he moved to Rome and from there sent a picture postcard to Irene Eisinger, c/o United Artist Studio, London, saying where he was and sending his love to "Rudi" (Dr. Rudolf Ratschitsky). The postcard was signed "your old DRG", his nickname as a boy in Lündenburg.
"Tor" had by this time a job in the economic department of the Czech Government in Princes Gate. Immediately after receiving Fidrmuc's postcard he despatched his next report to Italy, had moved to Portugal, he received his reports from "Tor" addressed to the Tourist Centre in Estoril. This centre was directed by Fidrmuc's friend Almeda. Fidrmuc had instructed "Tor" to send his reports written in secret ink on the back of the advertisements or British propaganda posters, always in duplicate. Fidrmuc told Almeida that he collected these advertisements or posters and asked him to provide him with any copies he might receive. In this way he always received at least one copy of "Tor" 's reports and some times both of them. "Tor" was in England from 1938 - 1945. During this time he transmitted to Fidrmuc 100 to 120 reports of which only seven or eight went astray. Fidrmuc ways that some of these reports were sent to the Abwehr by courier whilst others sent by telegram (W/T). The whole correspondence between Fidrmuc and "Tor" was conducted in German.
"Tor" received his information on Air Force matters chiefly from his friend, Air Vice-Marshall K. Jannouschek, Chief of the Czech Air Force operating from England, and through Jannouschek's mistress, Madame Fischa-Cachowa. Fidrmuc stated that "Tor"'s chief source of intelligence was, however, the "secretary of the Czech Legation in London". When pressed for his name, Fidrmuc declared that it was Prince Lobkowitz, who was First Czech Charge d'Affaires, and later Czech Minister (Chief of the Czech Legation). After 1944 reports from "Tor" were believed by Fidrmuc to have been written by Lobkowitz. The handwriting had in any case changed. Fidrmuc's method of communicating with Lobkowitz was as follows: Fidrmuc bought in Lisbon British Share certificates of low value and sent them to the Leamington Spa, Bath, or sometimes a London Branch Office of the Midland or Barclays Bank for the secretary of the Czech Legation. In due course Lobkowitz would collect the shares. On the back of the shares Fidrmuc wrote his instructions in secret ink.
KV 2/198-2, page 79c
Madame Fischa-Gachowa knew the Czech Foreign Minister, Jan Masaryk, well and was also in contact with Noel Baker. "Tor" was also on very good terms with the secretary of the Society of British Aircraft Manufactures, as also with high officers of the Polish Air Force. All of "Tor"'s reports on Air Force matters were treated in Berlin with great respect.
"Tor" submitted reports on the following matters:
(a) Very detailed report on strength of R.A.F. Fighter Command, giving details of squadrons, equipment, types of aircraft (Spitfire, etc.) for each squadron in September 1940.
(b) Very good report on American Londonderry base.
(c) Production figures of British Aircraft monthly, and sometimes quarterly.
(d) Complete description of how anti-submarine detection means worked.
(e) Report on the construction of extra-wide aerodromes with one -start runways up to two miles long, and details of how the bombers take off.
(f) Complete list of Czech and Polish, as well as Royal Canadian Air Forces, equipment, types, strength.
(g) Report on the Invasion of Normandy. This report was received in Lisbon so early that it was in Berlin on 2nd June 1944 (Isk 100131). It was correct in every detail except that it stated that the Americans would use a pioneer movement which they did not.
"Tor"'s reports decreased the winter of 1944-1945 and stopped altogether in March 1945. "Tor" wished to return to Czechoslovakia at the end of the war. Fidrmuc stated that during the time that "Tor" was in England he sent "Tor" about 50 messages in all. Fidrmuc also declared that Irene Eisinger was certainly not aware of her brother-in-law's activities.
"Tor" also used as a contact "Nelly" a chorus-girl friend of → Sit Bruce Gardiner,
KV 2/198-2, page 80d
Sir Bruce Gardiner, later head of the Society of British Aircraft Producers. "Nelly" had first been contacted by one, Dr. Beit who came to England in 1935 as an Abwehr agent. (AOB: this apparently Jewish person used the opportunity to leave Germany and keeping in the possession of most of his fortune). he was not very good on military intelligence and the Abwehr requested him in 1936 to terminate these reports. Dr. Beit reported henceforth on the private lives of high-ranking persons in England. Beit dies in 1938. In 1939 "Tor" established contact with "Nelly and obtained good results through this contact.
Towards the end of the war, that is in 1944, Fidrmuc concocted a plan to receive from "Tor" wireless messages announcing the German towns which were next on the list of Allied bomb attacks. As "Tor" was not in the possession of a wireless transmitter or W/T set and, in the interest of his safety, could not be provided with one, means had to be found to provide a W/T channel for "Tor" messages. Fidrmuc approached the Abwehr and asked them if they had a suitable W/T agent in England who could transmit "Tor"'s messages dealing with impending air attacks on German cities. Fidrmuc learned from the Abwehr that one of their stations in Holland was in W/T contact with a Republican Spaniard living N.E. London, who was sending messages by short wave W/T transmitter. Fidrmuc instructed "Tor" to choose from the lists published in English newspapers of officers who died in action those names whose initial three letters were the same as some as those of German towns started with the same letters (such as, for instance, Hamburg and Hamm) the first four letters of a surname had to be chosen. Tor, after learning the name of the next German town on the list of Allied bomb attacks had been proceed in the following manner. After selecting the name of the officer who died in action Tor had to give this officer two Christian names (for instance, George Frederick), and to sent this name with a monetary contribution, say of £1, to the priest of one of the seven Catholic in N.E. London selected by Fidrmuc, with a request that the Mess should read for the soul of this officer. The republican Spaniard, on the other hand, received from this station in Holland an order to visit every day the seven Catholic churches by Fidrmuc in N.E. London, and to look on the boards of these churches for the name of an officer killed in action whose Christian name was george Frederick and for whom a Mass was being read. The only thing the Republican Spaniard W/T operator had now to do was to send the surname of the "killed" British officer to his station in Holland. This name, therefore, gave the name of the town in Germany that was going to be bombed by the Allied Air Forces.
KV 2/198-2, page 81e
In this way "Tor" and the German W/T agent in N.E. London could cooperate without ever meeting and thereby endangering each other's activities.
2. Ahmed Isauri @ "Mos".
This man, the plenipotentiary of His Royal Highness, Iwan of Yemen was Fidrmuc's first agent. He recruited him in 1935. "Mos" worked for Fidrmuc until the end of the war. He was fanatically anti-British and intent upon the destruction of the British Empire "Mos" was not pro-German, but considered that the Germans were the only people who could destroy the British Empire. He also personal ambitions in Aden, Somaliland, and the Sudan, and would accept as reward for his services to Germany business facilities and presents, but not money. "Mos" was a business friend of Magnus and Spiro, the arms traffickers in Hamburg, and he travelled every year to Europe and visited Trieste, Vienna (Wien), Prague, Hamburg, Brussels, London, Paris and Rome - always under an assumed name, Fidrmuc stated that "Mos"'s real name was probably Isauri but a name that sounded very much like it. Hammerschlag of the firm of Magnus and Spiro in Hamburg would know "Mos"'s real name. (AOB: when these latter men not have been eliminated by the "Nazi pack")
"Mos" started submitting his reports early in 1936. They contained details of strength and equipment of the 6th, 7th and 8th British Divisions in Egypt and Palestine; the fortification of Aden, Perim, etc.; British troops in Iraq; condition, strength, equipment of R.A.F. squadrons in Aden, Sudan, Egypt, Palestine and Iraq, and other items of military interest. "Mos" wrote his reports in French or Italian in invisible ink ("Citronentinte"), sometimes of coffee bags, and he never posted them in British possessions but mainly in French Somaliland or Italian Eritrea. reports were submitted approximately once a month and many of them were sent to the Italians as well as the Germans. "Mos" used the following addresses for his correspondence with Fidrmuc:
(a) Magnus & Sprio, Rathausbrücke, Hamburg
(b) Magnus & Spiro, Liege (Belgium).
(c) Max Ramm, Coffee Importer (Importeur), Hamburg.
Fidrmuc wrote to "Mos" under the following names and addresses:
(a) Monsieur Henri Saumier, c/o Silbermann, Diskin and Kaplan, Merchant Bankers, Jerusalem and Jaffa.
KV 2/198-2, page 82f
(b) Abdul Rasr Bendramin, c/o Agencia Lloyd Trieste, Hodeida.
(c) Ahmed Isauri, Hodeida.
When "Mos" visited Hamburg annually between 1936-1939, Major Pruck @ Peters (the first Abwehr officer with whom Fidrmuc entered into contact 1934 (when Fidrmuc discovered that all "quota" had been captured by the big market players), and the one whom he trusted most, and who knew all his agents) was present. Pruck was a member of Piekenbrock's staff (in Berlin) In the course of the meetings mentioned above, "Mos" would report for instance on the organisation of the British Intelligence Service in Arabia "based mainly on Galathy Hanky & Co., Steamship Agents and Bankers in Port Said, Sudan, Hodeida, Aden, Basra etc." he also reported on an underground movement in Egypt. "Mos" had a sub-agent working for him in Cairo and Port Said, a man called Mohamed Ibn Smain who had a house in Cairo.
3. Max Gruber @ "Ruf".
He worked during the war from Paris. All his reports were found to be correct to the last detail. before the war he worked in Geneva for Tavaro. Fidrmuc introduced him to Schlosser Anlo, Hardware Merchants in Paris. "Ruf" received a monthly salary of 7,500 francs. he started his career in Paris in 1939 after having been trained by Fidrmuc in Hamburg.
Other agents named by Fidrmuc were:
(a) Hans Hollander, who was employed by Radio Luxemburg and was in contact with Luxemburg Minister of Education.
(b) Frantiszek Neyedly @ "Sir" who was engaged before the war in order to send reports from Russia, and who communicated with Fidrmuc by means of messages written in secret ink. As Neykdly was a journalist who wrote for trade journals, such journals, amongst them also the Ironmongers, were used as carriers for secret ink messages. Fidrmuc was at that time staying in Copenhagen.
(c) Ernst Hayk whose home town was Brno (Czechoslovakia).
Amongst the many sources Fidrmuc had in Portugal the following may be quoted:
(a) The brothers Borges, Bank Proprietors.
KV 2/198-2, page 83g (P2032 P2032return)
(b) Dr. Francisco Gentil. lawyer, and brother-in-law of the secretary of the Portuguese Legation in London.
(c) Moraes, First Secretary of Portuguese Embassy in Madrid and friend of French and American attachés there. Now in Brazil.
(d) Dr. Pacheko Germanophile, Portuguese Minister of Public Works.
(e) Visconde Marco, Member of the British set in Estoril and of the Royal British Club.
(f) Marquis Saldanla.
(g) Prince Ratibor.
(h) T. Ananda, the brother-in-law of the Duke of Palmela, Portuguese Ambassador in London.
(i) The Banker, Ricardo Espirito Santo.
(j) Fidrmuc stated that he achieved his biggest scoop on August 24th 1943 on the "Rabbitbeach" of Arabida coast near Setubal. Fidrmuc was sunning himself on a rock when he saw a party of three, two men and a woman, unsuccessfully to tie up a boat. he had previously noticed by the way the two man of a party were rowing that they were not very familiar with the sea and had concluded that they could not be English as, so he said : Britannia rules the waves" and these people did not. Fidrmuc decided to go to their rescue and was amazed to recognise in one of the men, His Excellency the British Ambassador, Sir Ronald Campbell. Fidrmuc helped the British party to tie their boat securely. When he was about to take leave of them, Sir Ronald Campbell asked Fidrmuc if he would mind watching over their clothes which they deposited on the shore whilst they bathed in the adjoining bay, Fidrmuc readily agreed and when the British Ambassador and his two companions had disappeared behind the rock, Fidrmuc searched their clothes left behind. he discovered that the other man's name was Charles Morgan. The following are the notes made by Fidrmuc from the entries in Sir Ronald Campbell's note-book.
17.8.43 Moutanari 11 a.m. S. informed Sacaveb; 2 cars
18.8.43 Strong Smith. Lunch 12. Air Com. C. present.
19.8.43 S.S.M.C. 7.30 pm dinner O.M.C. F.Z. present.
20.8.43 Terms agreed. EH baffled. Maestro offended. Lui as oorlog
KV 2/198-2, page 85h
21.8.45 N.B. W/T placet.
Fidrmuc lost no time in taking his find to "Ludovico" (Leiter KOP). The two of them worked out the following solution of the puzzle:
Montanari = Italian Consul in Lisbon.
Castellano = Italian General
Strong and Smith = probably the American Generals who were reported to have arrived in Lisbon in "mufti".
Air Com C. = British Air Attaché
Maestro = Badoglio DE https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pietro_Badoglio ; EN https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pietro_Badoglio
Lui = Mussolini
N.B. possibly Noel Baker.
"Ludovico" immediately sent a cable to Berlin (AOB: think of likely as a W/T message), announcing that separate armistice was being signed between the Allies and Italy. Berlin apparently knew better and replied that this was impossible replied: and Fidrmuc should have appropriated the note-book. Fidrmuc replied: Herbert Spencer says there are things a man can do and others a man can not do." A few days later the Armistice between Italy and the Allies was officially announced.
In the note-book belonging to Charles Morgan Fidrmuc found two entries for July 1943: "9,000 escudos to prince Sergi (Po....Russia)" and "7,000 escudos to Luiz (this was a nickname of a well-known Cascais-set boy. (AOB: Cascais was a tribe in Iran, where Schulze had been ultimately been made prisoner, due to British bribing.)( https://www.cdvandt.org/schulze-case.htm)
In the summer of 1944 when Fidrmuc in his Ostro Messages was sometimes getting very near the knuckle, an attempt was made by British I.S. to undermine his position with the Abwehr: a letter which Fidrmuc had written from Copenhagen on 3rd September 1939 (see: O2031 O2031return) to his former (British) trade journal "the Ironmonger", was photographed and played into the hands of the Abwehr via Fullards Air Mission Offices in Lisbon. In this letter Fidrmuc had, on the outbreak of the war, offered "The Ironmonger to continue his article on German industry, etc. notwithstanding the fact that hostilities between Britain and Germany had begun. (AOB: in my perception, such childish way of thinking inside the brains of a group of MI5 servants, is to be noticed as: simply childish; as we have reached now 1944) This letter could have been interpreted as an offer by Fidrmuc to work for the British Intelligence Service during the war. (AOB: Fidrmuc worked, actually "freelance" as wasn't he employed by the Abwehr) The British Intelligence Service at the time no reactions to the photograph of Fidrmuc's "Ironmonger" letter. Fidrmuc however gave U.35 now spontaneously a detailed description of how he was approached in the summer of 1944 by the British Intelligence Service in the shape of a number of Foullard's office in Lisbon with the offer (firmly declined by Fidrmuc) to abjure the Abwehr work henceforth for British Intelligence, When U.35 suggested to Fidrmuc that this → was probably an attempt of the Abwehr to probe his loyalty,
KV 2/198-3, page 1i
was probably an attempt of the Abwehr to probe his loyalty, Fidrmuc declared emphatically that this was impossible as the Foullard man had produced as evidence for his belief that Fidrmuc might be prepared to work for the British a photograph of his (Fidrmuc's) letter to "the Ironmonger" written as far back as 3rd September 1939. "Where asked Fidrmuc, should the Abwehr have got got a photograph of this letter from (AOB: in my perception: via September 1939 censorship copy)? Fidrmuc said that the "man from Foullard's office gave his name as carter and seemed to prove by his appearance, accent, etc. that he was a subaltern. Fidrmuc does not doubt that he was an Englishman.
AOB: unexpectedly here ends U.35's interrogation of Paul Georg Fidrmuc; in my perception more a conversation between Germans.
KV 2/198-3, page 15
AOB: please remember first: P2032 P2032return
I became P.C.O. Lisbon in August 1943. During a private interview (I cannot even remember the approximate date) Sir Ronald Campbell told me the following story:
He and Lady Campbell had hired a rowing boat in order to bathe from a secluded beach. They got into difficulties, from which they were extricated by the kind offices of an athletic young man (AOB: then 45 years of age, do we speak then of a young man?) who was sunbathing. It subsequently transpired that the young man was a German.
I got the impression at the time that Sir Ronald told me the anecdote as ancient history, and he had already identified the German, but had forgotten his name. He may have discussed the incident with Ralph Jarvis, my predecessor, who was on friendly terms with the Campbells and who returned to Portugal several times on short visits after he handed over to me in August. Jarvis may be able to date (24th August 1943) the incident for you.
One of my collaborators here, who was in Portugal at the time, remembers hearing from British sources that Sir Ronald offered Paul Fidrmuc a lift in his car. This confirms that the identity of Fidrmuc was known to Sir Ronald, or identified for him by description.
Paul Fidrmuc's account, in its general lines, seems therefore to be confirmed. My only doubt is about the date. When Sir Ronald told me the story I was under the impression that it all occurred before I came to Portugal (ie. before 10th August 1943) This may well, however have been based on a misunderstanding.
(15) (since 24 July 2023)
KV 2/198-3, page 17a + 18b (minute 204a)
S.I.S. CX/ /R.5.B. dated 22.1.47
Dear Miss Chenhalls (M.I.5.),
Thank you for your letter PF 64447/B.2.b/JC of 9.1.47 enclosing the report on Fidrmuc. Tracing has produced little of value so far. There are one or two possible identifications, such as V-Mann "RU" for "RUF", but without more details about the latter there is nothing to indicate that they really correspond. (Should you wish to examine the material perhaps you would like to come over and have a look at it some time). As regards the rest of the names, the position is as follows:
G. Eisinger N.T.
Irene Eisinger N.T.
Magnus & Spiro A certain Spiro was possibly connected with Amt IV (AOB: Ausland Sipo & S.D.) in Hamburg, and a Magnus was known to us as an arms dealer from pre-war
days, but not otherwise we have nothing of interest.
Max Ramm N.T.
Henri Saumier N.T.
Max Gruber @ "Ruf" N.T.
Hans Hollander This man might possibly be identical with a Hans Emil Robert Hollander, also known as Jean Hollander, a French suspect who was evacuated by the French from
Belgrade in February 1945.
Ernst Hayek N.T. although we knew of a V.A. Hajek as rather an unsatisfactory character in Czechoslovakia of whom we lost trace in 1923. The identity does not seem to be
Neyedly ) N.T.
Dr. Rudolf Ratschitsky ) "
Ahmed Ibn Sauri ) "
Mme. Fischa-Gachova ) "
Prince Lobkowitz ) No doubt these people are better known to you than to us, and we have no information of our own likely to be new or of interest to you.
General Janoushek )
We look forward with great interest to hearing further from you with regard to your own queries in connection with this case.
name deliberately made invisible.
KV 2/198-3, page 21 (minute 201a)
In the case of Lobkowicz none of the evidence produced by Fidrmuc has been corroborated. We can of course have a talk with him a friendly and courteous way, but I doubt if this would get us far and if he were wrong it would only serve to warn him.
I incline not to rush in on Lobkowicz but to await the further evidence likely to be obtained by U.35 from Fidrmuc, whom is now interrogating and upon the results of the interrogation of Ratschitsky.
Meanwhile I have asked Hayter to let us know if the Foreign Office receive warning of Lobkowicz's departure from this country. Do you agree?
D.B. D.G. White (M.I.5) 20.1.47.
KV 2/198-3, page 29a + 30b (minute 197a) (Y2090 ↓↓↓↓↓ Y2090return)
As promised, I attach herewith a preliminary report on the interrogation of Paul Fidrmuc and I should be glad if it could be returned to me as soon as you have made what extracts you consider necessary.
We have received an additional note on the Fidrmuc case today from the Americans giving details of methods of communication he had with an agent in the U.S.A. by the name of Kaul.
Methods of Communication.
The Kaul report reached Lisbon by Portuguese steamer according to plan worked out by Fidrmuc. Kaul would buy a copy of :Esquire:, trace his notes with invisible ink on the reverse side of the double-paged pun-up found in each copy, then return the copy to the dealer from whom he had bought it, who invariable took it back, since Kaul bought enough other magazines to make the sale profitable for the dealer.
The III officer of the Portuguese steamer Serpa Pinto would then proceed to the same bookshop (in Baltimore) and would purchase a large number of back issues of various American magazines including a number of copies of "Esquire", with the explanation that people in Lisbon were willing to pay enormous prices for back issues of such magazines.
Once the ship docked in Portugal a member of the Portuguese Police, presumably Oliveira de Gaspari, would confiscate all copies of "Esquire", among them the Kaul copy, and deliver them to von Karsthoff (Karsthof) (whom was Leiter KOP between 1942-Spring 1944; @ Ludovico).
Another method of communication successfully employed by Kaul and also worked out in detail by Fidrmuc made use of the advertising material found in boxes of nylon (Perlon) stockings smuggled into Portugal by personnel of the clippers during the war. The advantage of this method, which is also true of the "Esquire" method, was that those transporting the articles were not aware that they contained messages in invisible ink.
In Lisbon von Karsthoff obtained the nylon stockings plus the advertising material through a shop in Rua Carret named the Savoia.
B.2.b./JC. 15.1.47 J. Chenhalls
KV 2/198-3, page 32a (minute 196a)
13th January 1947
Head of S..I.M.E. (Secret Intelligence Middle East)
One of the more important German agents in the Iberian Peninsula was returned to the American Zone of Germany some months ago. The Americans were unable to "break" this man under interrogation, and we have now been allowed to send our representative (AOB: U.35 Mr. Klop Ustinov; being not the smartest on earth) (see Q2033 Q2033return) to handle this case. On arrival in the American Zone of Germany he found that Paul Georg Fidrmuc had at last decided to speak the truth (AOB: what it is worth it) and was giving out a great deal of information.
Paul Georg Fidrmuc, born 28.6.1898, a German (AOB: actually he was born Austrian as this part of Sudetenland belonged to the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy up to late 1918) of Czech origin. (U.35, our not too smart guy: The Czechoslovak Republic was founded after the end of WW I), is a partner in the firm Brucker-Traus of Lisbon, also director and shareholder in Tresafil, S.A., in Bilbao, which latter firm deals in copper wire and steel cables: has had a long (free-lance) intelligence career (1935 .. May 1945), first coming to notice in 1935 when he began to order books, maps, and documents of military interest from London firm: in Denmark in 1938 as a newspaper correspondent (he was married to his Danish born wife Ragmor, in 1923), at the same time allegedly engaged in espionage: visited the U.K. several times prior to 1939: officer of I H in Berlin in Lisbon since 1940 (AOB: Fidrmuc was in no way an officer as he was a "freelance" agent, operating on his own initiative. His agreement of 1935 meant: among other points: that he cooperated with Abwehr I-H Ost in Berlin), collecting reports from a network of agents in the British Empire (AOB: my personal impression is - that the latter statement is rather questionable), the U.S.A. Egypt, etc. though his claim to importance as the head of an espionage organisation in these areas was much exaggerated, not least by himself; frequently used the microdot method (R2034 R2034return) for secret correspondence with his agents abroad (AOB: I strongly doubt this, as microdot techniques are quite sophisticated - as one necessitate a high performance optical apparatus, which, for instance, in Egypt wasn't existing): in Lisbon his contacts with Allied airline pilots aroused suspicion, and air information was among his papers: also engaged in extensive and often ill-considered business deals designed to defeat the Allied blockade: said to have obtained →
KV 2/198-3, page 33b
exceptionally accurate information concerning the conference of Allied leaders held in Yalta in February 1945. (AOB: in my perception, Lisbon and Portugal were situated quasi ideal, as many different British personnel was using Portugal as a hub between England - USA, the Middle-East, North-Africa etc. Not to forget retiring people - be it temporarily or more or less permanent. Bars were also gathering points of some significance - as "alcohol, and the time of the day and meeting people", quite natural gatherings for whatever kind of conversations. Nowadays one would say: copy and paste)
We have received the preliminary details of the information he is giving us and it seems that the man had three first-rate sources of information, one in the U.K. under the cover name "Tor", one in Paris under the "cover name "Ruf", and the third in the Middle East with the cover name "Mos". He has given details containing information on these three characters and we are taking immediate steps to check whether he is speaking the truth. (AOB: in my perception, he did not in most cases!) For this reason we should be glad to have your immediate reaction to the information he gives on his agent in the Middle East (AOB: "Mos" might have been, in some respect, the only true source of information at least for a while.), to be followed later by such details as you can to corroborate or refute this report.
("Mos"@ Ahmed Isauri:) (PF 603569 is no longer existing)
This man plenipotentiary of His royal Highness, Iman of Yemen, was Fidrmuc's first agent. He recruited him in 1935, "Mos" worked for Fidrmuc until the end of the war. He was fanatically anti-British and intent upon the destruction of the British Empire. "Mos" was not pro-German, but he considered that the Germans were the only people who could destroy the British Empire. He also had personal ambitions in Aden, Somaliland, and the Sudan, and would accept as reward for his services the German business facilities and presents, but not money. "Mos" was a business friend of Magnus & Spiro, the arms traffickers in Hamburg, and he travelled every year to Europe and visited Trieste, Vienna (Wien), Prague, Hamburg and Brussels, London, Paris and Rome - always under ab assumed name. Fidrmuc stated that "Mos"'s real name was probably not Isauri but a name that sounded very much like it. Hammerschlag of the firm of Magnus and Sprio in Hamburg would know "Mos"'s real name.
"Mos" started submitting his reports early in 1936. They contained details of strength and equitment of the 6th, 7th and 8th British Divisions in Egypt and Palestine; the fortifications →
KV 2/198-3, page 34c (AOB: they actually are repeating U.35's "third rate" report again) (I would therefore like to skip transcription; as long as we have been confronted with again)
of Aden, Parim, etc.:
KV 2/198-3, page 35d
Fidrmuc's alias was Ostro and you will most probably find in S.M.I.E. records an assessment of the MiddleEast Intelligence on this traffic. Although the Moritz reports (AOB: these reports weren't related to Fidrmuc though to Klatt's messages from Sofia; which, will be dealt with in due course, after the conclusion of Fidrmuc's papers. Klatt's reports were the most spectacular of all) were doubtful accuracy we have note our files by R.S.S. that certainly in 1942 the intelligence from Middle East sources on the Ostro service was largely accurate. We should be glad if you would comment on this also.
Sir Percy SillitoePriliminary
KV 2/198-3, page 42a
CI Special report No 27
Prisoner: Fidrmuc, Paul Abwehr Agent, Amt Abw. Berlin
Preliminary interrogation of Subject (Fidrmuc) has thrown light on the activities of the German agent Kaul, who was active in the United States during hostilities.
Since this information may be of immediate interest to various agencies, it is being published in the following special report.
1. The German Agent Kaul
2. The German Refuge and repatriate Dr. Kaul
3. Similarity between the Abwehr Agent Kaul and dr. Kaul of CIE 76
4. Conclusions drawn by Fidrmuc
5. Testimony of Stubes, von Wenckstern and Somer
KV 2/198-3, page 43b
USFET NIS Center CI-PIR / 123 dtd 29 May 46
1. The German Agent Kaul.
During the Abwehr activity in Portugal from 1940 to 1945 Paul Fidrmuc, although working as an independent (freelance) agent for Abwehr HQ in Berlin, maintained close contact with the Chief of KO Portugal Obstlt. von Karshoff (he came to Portugal about 1942), frequently assisting him in an advisory capacity. (AOB, Fidrmuc and Ludovico von Karsthoff (the latter two names were an alias of: Wilhelm Kraemer (Cremer) von Auenrode; were quite close friends - as both had been on the same school in Trieste, and, as both were born Austrians) Fidrmuc was interested in obtaining intelligence from the US to substantiate or to elaborate on the reports of his agents in England and the near East. Von Karshoff obliged him by showing him or discussing with him the report of his agent in the US, whose name, as Fidrmuc found out in the course of his discussions, was Kaul.
a. Methods of Communication.
The Kaul reports reached Lisbon by Portuguese steamer according to a plan worked out by Fidrmuc. Kaul would buy a copy of "Esquire", trace the notes with invisible ink on the reverse side of the double-paged pin-up found on each copy, then return the copy to the dealer from whom he had bought it, who invariably took it back, since Kaul bought enough other magazines to make the sale profitable for the dealer.
The III officer of the Portuguese steamer Sepra Pinto would then proceed to the same bookshop (in Baltimore) and would purchase a large number of back issues of various American magazines including a number of copies of "Esquire", with the explanation that the people in Lisbon were willing to pay enormous prices for back issues of such magazines.
Once the ship docked in Portugal a member of the Portuguese Police presumably Olivera de Gaspari, would confiscate all copies of "Esquire", among them the Kaul copy, and deliver them to von Karsthoff (Leiter KO Portugal).
Another method of communication successfully employed by Kaul and also worked out in detail by Fidrmuc made use of the advertising material found in boxes of nylon stockings smuggled into Portugal by personnel of the Clippers during the war. The advantage of this method, which is also true of the "Esquire" method, was that those transporting the articles were not aware that they contained messages in invisible ink.
In Lisbon von Karshoff obtained the nylon stockings plus the advertising material through shop in Rua Garret named the Savoia.
b. Content of the Kaul reports.
Fidrmuc had success at various times to the Kaul reports in the period 1941 to 1943, when the reports suddenly ceased. These reports dealt mainly with American matters and contained practically nothing of navel intelligence and the few details of the Thunderbolt fighter and the Flying Fortress were more of a general nature and in Fidrmuc's opinion of little value.
In 1942 the Kaul reports contained detailed intelligence on the new triangular division, stressing the point that the USA was imitating the Wehrmacht. Figures were included showing the amount of type of equipment, armament, strength, etc., of the new formations. One report carried a detailed description of the new 90 mm anti-aircraft gun and also mentioned, as far as Fidrmuc can recall, a 4.7" weapon. Mention was also made of a new AA director (Kommando-Geraet) (AOB: = computing the various gun-parameter values; also known as a predictor, as it calculated the virtual point where an aircraft would be when the shell reaches, just in time, that very point in space. Quite complicated calculations, where all kind of various parameters had to be considered. Such as: how many rounds has a particular AA gun fired already; as this causes wearing and is reducing the V0 of AA shells generally. Further: Air-pressure, humidity, temperature wind direction etc. AA shells should after failing the target destruct itself by means of setting a timer; which has to be set before firing. All together predicting is a rather complicated process.) (an example of a German Kommando-Geraet: https://www.cdvandt.org/manuals.htm#KG_40) produced by Westinghouse. Kaul also reported the existence of a new tank, the Dread-nought, of some 70 to 80 tons, and Fidrmuc and von Karsthoff compared its specifications to those of the Russian T-34.
KV 2/198-3, page 44c
Kaul also reported the activation of new divisions and their location. His reports on troop locations were invariably thorough and detailed. Fidrmuc recalls a long dispute with von Karsthoff on a report made by Kaul in 1943, in which he stated that the USA intended to ship some 50 divisions to Great Britain by the Spring of 1944, whereas Berlin was counting on less than 25. The Kaul reports also stressed airborne divisions.
Kaul furnished valuable information on new artillery developments, especially anti-tank guns. On one occasion he reported the production figures of one company manufacturing the new-type field pieces of 105, 155 and 240 mm.
Fidrmuc suspects that Kaul on one occasion reported the movement of a US Marine Corps Division to Europe, for von Karsthoff asked Fidrmuc whether he had any news from England of the arrival of a Marine Corps Division there. Fidrmuc states that Berlin also expected the appearance of such a division.
c. The Kaul Reports on Technical Research and Production in the US.
In one report forwarded in the summer of 1942 Kaul stated that the USA had started production of atomic bombs and mentioned the place of production. The report contained no technical details.
Von Karsthoff also informed Fidrmuc of Kaul's reports on research being carried out by the General Electric Co in Schenectady but mentioned no details. Similarly, he told him of reports received on research underway at the Dupont de Namours installations. In Fidrmuc's opinion such reports were general in nature, stressing the research fields of such laboratories rather than details of definite inventions.
2. The German Refugee and Repatriate Dr. Kaul.
While interned in CIE 76 US Zone of Germany in the Spring of 1946 Fidrmuc made the acquaintance of a Dr. Kaul, a fellow internee, whom Fidrmuc, from information gleaned in the course of conversations with him, suspects to the identical with the Abwehr agent Kaul.
a. Career of Dr. Kaul.
Dr. Kaul (fnu) (= first name unknown) was a member of the German Communist Party from 1927 to 1933. He was arrested in 1933 by Nazis and sent to a series of concentration camps (including Dachau), where he remained until 1937 or the beginning of 1938. At that time, according to his own story, he got himself sent to Costa Rica by the Gestapo, as an agent and later proceeded to the US, where he lived in various sections of the country until interned as suspicious alien. In October 1945 Kaul was repatriated to Germany, and remained in CIE 76 until May or June 1946.Upon his release he has given 24 hours leave the American Zone. On previous occasions Kaul had repeatedly stated that he was persona grata in the Russian Zone and would be accepted there with open arms. He proceeded to Berlin to join his wife and is now said to be in the employ of the Russians.
b. Work with CIC.
While at CIE 76 Dr. Kaul was a trusty of the CIC until the beginning of March 1946. In this capacity he had access to the files,
KV 2/198-3, page 45d
was able to read reports, translated questionnaire, and kept voluminous note in small notebook. Suddenly he was fired from his position of confidence. A notice appeared on the bulletin board that Dr. Kaul in the future was to be barred from the offices of the camp. Fidrmuc claims not to know the reason for this action but states that it was the general opinion in the camp that too much information was leaking out.
c. Activities in the US.
During their conversations Dr. Kaul told Fidrmuc and others that the Gestapo had furnished him with dollars to live for some time in Costa Rica. He further stated that he had excellent connections with Professor Einstein and his laboratory. He had in his possession a letter signed by professor Einstein and addressed to the American authorities responsible for his US internment, recommending his release. he claimed to have had connections with Professor KA...? a research professor of Dupont de Nemours, as well as with a research expert of General Electric Co. in Schenectady.
Dr. Kaul was in contact with Communist branch of the Zionists in Palestine, One evening he discussed with Fidrmuc the Communist future of Palestine.
While in the united States Kaul was familiar with a Russian General by the name of Kochov (?), who as Kaul told Fidrmuc, was on some sort of mission in the US at the time.
d. Description of Dr. Kaul.
Dr. Kaul is about 5'7", dark blond complexion, brown eyes, thinning hair, has a scar on his left cheek, and wears glasses when reading Fidrmuc describes him as extremely quick-witted, an excellent conversationalist and a goor orator. On the other hand, he is personally disagreeable, prone to argue with others, the type that always knows better. His knowledge of military affairs is excellent.
He is married to a German, the daughter of a general. He has, as far as Fidrmuc knows, no children. he is Jewish but mocks his faith in Communist manner.
Dr. Kaul is according to Fidrmuc, a fanatical philosophical theorist. He hates Americans and makes no secret of it. He says he prefers National-Socialism to democracy. In a lecture given at CIE 78 he stated that he had been well treated at Dachau and that conditions had been better than were at CIE 76.
Fidrmuc admits having been fascinated by the man and having enjoyed arguing with him, despite the fact that he disliked him for his personal uncleanliness and for his character.
Never having seen the Abwehr agent Kaul, Fidrmuc cannot give a description of the man.
3. Similarity between the Abwehr Agent Kaul and Dr. Kaul of CIE 76. (AOB: I would not wonder when: Dr. Kaul is Mr. Kaul!)
a. The same name, one of which is not too common.
b. residence in the US in the same period.
c. Dr. Kaul of CIE 76 knows: Agent Kaul reports on:
Prof. Einstein Atomic Research
Pr. KA...? of General Electric in Schenectady Research carried on by GE Schenectady
Research Prof of Dupont de Nemours. Research carried on by Dupont de Nemours
(16) (since 29 July 2023)
KV 2/198-3, page 46e.
d. Dr. Kaul is well versed in military subjects. Fidrmuc tested him once by maintaining that the Sherman tank was just old scrap with 20 mm armour in front. Whereupon Dr. Kaul called him stupid and rattled off the specifications of the Sherman to prove his point. The agent Kaul was also well versed in military subjects.
4. Conclusions Drawn by Fidrmuc.
a. Agent Kaul and Dr. Kaul are one and the same person.
b. Dr. Kaul was not sent out of Germany by the Gestapo but by the Abwehr.
c. Dr. Kaul continued to remain in the good grace of the German authorities during his stay in the US. Jewish emigrants leaving Germany after 1933-34 always took their families with them and paid the Reichsfluchtsteuer. Dr. Kaul went alone but remained in constant correspondence with his wife, even from CIE 76.
5. Testimony of Stubes, von Wenckstern and Sommer.
There other prisoners at this Centre, who had also come in contact with Dr. Kaul at CIE 76, have given the following information on the man:
a. Stubbs, Erwin.
Kaul left Germany during the war or just before the outbreak of the war as a refuge. He went to Central America, and from there to the US. He claimed to have returned to Germany voluntarily.
Kaul is a violent Communist of Jewish descent. He was married to the daughter of a German general, who obtained his release from a concentration camp in 1937 on the condition that he leave the country.
Kaul is said to have made a statement comparing the treatment at Dachau favourably with that of Asperg (CIE 76).
While at CIE Kaul became friendly with a Dr. Fritz Ehrmarth. Both of them had been repatriated from the US in Fritz Kuhn's (Kühn's?) party and Kaul had befriended Ehrmarth because that latter had married the daughter of an American senator. While Kaul did not like the Americans, Ehrmarth was a great friend of America. After Kaul had been released to go to Berlin, he corresponded with a fellow internee at CIE 76, Ziegra, who had worked for the German Economic Ministry at the Embassy in Madrid.
b. von Wenckstern.
Kaul was sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis as a Jew and a Communist but was released in 1937 through the intercession of his father-in-law, a German general. He went to South America (Colombia) to the US. He was former lawyer in Berlin and is now assistant to Pieck, Chief of the SED, as Menckstern learned from Ziegra, a fellow internee at CIE 76.
c. Sommer, Hans ? Senner, Herbert.
While at CIE 76 last Spring Sommer, a former SD member active in France and Italy, became very friendly with Ziegra. This friendship resulted in common plans for the future and strong mutual confidence. Ziegra told Sommer things that he would not have confided to anyone else in the camp. Ziegra is a successful businessman, who lived for many years in South America and in the United States. Until the outbreak of the war he had a bank business in New York. He enjoyed excellent relationships to the Nazi Party and high SS circles. SS-Gruppenfuehrer Trummler (Trümmler?), chief of the SS in the region Spree (Oberabschnittsführer Spree), was his intimate friend.
KV 2/198-3, page 47f
In 1943 Ziegra sent to Spain by the German Ministry of Economics (Wirtschaftsministerium). There he came under observation of the Police Attaché was was considered suspicious, since he had established contact with Col Hofman of the American Embassy in Madrid and had effected the meeting between Hoffman and the SS (Stubaf) (= Stumbannführer) Maiwald, member of Amt VI (AOB: Amt VI was a general intelligence section of the R.S.H.A.; but when it concerned military intelligence (after, say, Spring 1944) then it was covered by Amt Mil / Milamt). Ziegra had tried to meet Hofman personally, which apparently the latter declined.
Ziegra met the active Communist Kaul at CIE 76. In 1934 Kaul had been sent to a German concentration camp for his Communistic activities but was later released through intervention of his family. He emigrated to America, still a confirmed Communist. In CIE 76 Kaul was known for his dislike of America. He openly declared that the treatment at Dachau was three times as good as that at the American camp. he also did not hide the fact that on his release he would start a propaganda campaign against the Americans.
Kaul went out of his way while at CIE 76 to win the friendship of Ziegra and in a short time Ziegra was considered one of Kaul's few intimate friends. Kaul managed to influence his opinions to a great degree. On one occasion Ziegra told Sommer that there was no sense in working for the Americans, since they continuously created new difficulties for the prisoners. One is practically forced to do business with the Russians, according to Ziegra. (This opinion is widespread in German camps, Sommer says.)
On his release from CIE 76 Kaul went to the Russian Sector of Berlin, where his friend Pieck of the SED secured him a leading position with the Berlin Radio and where at the same time he is taking an active part in the management of the Communist Party in Berlin.
Ziegra was the only inmate of CIE 76 who regularly received mail from Kaul after latter's release, and when Ziegra left the camp he went immediately to Berlin to get in touch with Kaul.
Ziegra has made innumerable efforts to win the friendship to Sommer and will keeps up a correspondence with him, even to the extent of sending him telegrams from Berlin. On one occasion he advanced him funds without Sommer having asked for the money, stating that he should keep it (100 RM) and if he ever needed any more he should come to him. While in CIE 76 Ziegra showed Sommer a letter from Kaul informing him that the former SS (Gruppenführer) Trummler (Trümmler?) was being used by the Russians and was travelling regularly in his personal car between Berlin and Moscow.
At CIE 76 Ziegra had the reputation of being an important and influential businessman. Numerous GIS (German Intelligence Service) officers interned there approached him for assistance in securing a job after their release. Ziegra was prepared to help them and gave his future address to all of them. In one of his recent letters to Sommer he stated that former internees of CIE 76 are flocking to him for jobs like "bees to honey".
Sommer believes that Kaul-Ziegra relationship and their contacts with former GIS officers provide an excellent opportunity for exploitation by Russian IS. Ziegra is particularly suited for the work, since, as he recently wrote, he has regained his Brazilian citizenship.
For the Commanding Officer:
Chief, CI Section
KV 2/198-3, page 52 (minute 190z)
Ref. HQ. Int. Div/C3/PF 10433 HQ. Intelligence Division,
Tel. Herford 2238 70 HQ. C.C.G.
B.A.O.R. (British Army over the Rhine)
To: Box 500
Parliment Street B.O. (Postbox)
London S.W.1 31 December 1946
Subject: Wolf von Amerongen, Otto.
Reference your PF 46957/B.2.b./JC
1. The a/n has been interrogated as requested and the following information has been obtained:-
Fidrmuc worked as an (freelance) agent for Abwehr in Lisbon. Wolf von Amerongen worked as a "go-between" Fidrmuc and a certain Dr. Ender (= British agent Puppet!) who was supposed to be on its way to England or America as an Abwehr agent. Fidrmuc was responsible for Dr. Ender and was probably trying to procure the means by which Dr. Ender could go to England.
2. Wolf v.a. stated that Fidrmuc was employed as a civilian and not as an Abwehr officer. He also stated that Fidrmuc is now living in Spain. Fidrmuc came to Portugal in 1940 or 1941 and left for Spain
in October 1944(actually on 16 March 1945)
3. Wolf v.A. stated that a certain man Kurrer (@) formerly an Abwehr officer in Lisbon under the name Kamler (@ Heribert) informed him that (Johann) Jebsen was thrown into a KZ Camp in Oranienburg or Mohabit) (AOB: what has actually Jebsen @ Artist to do with the Fidrmuc case?). Kurrer suspected that Jebsen had died while being in the KZ Camp, probably without trial. (https://www.cdvandt.org/kv-2-560-wrede-artist.htm) (AOB: the latter himself called (likely) for his, ultimate, fate)
(Miss J.I Patersonfor General
for Major General
Chief, Intelligence Division.
KV 2/198-3, page 69 (minute 188ba?)
Extract for File No. : PF 64447 Name : Fidrmuc Paul
Original in File No. : SF52-4-4 (13) Serial 142a
Original from : Interrogation Report Under Ref. CI/FIR (Final Interrogation Report)/133
Extracted on : 7.5.47
Extract from Interrogation Report No. 133 on Franzbach, Max (@ Pago) Forwarded by APO US Army.
. . .
6. Extraordinary Payments by the KO.
Franzbach only the following few extraordinary payments made to agents of KO Spain.
a. From early 1941 until April 1943 Paul Fidrmuc @ Ostro, a German agent working in Portugal, received payments of $30,000, plus additional amounts up to 50,000 escudos, every three or four months. These payments were made by Franzbach's office (in Madrid) by order of Zentrale Finanzen Berlin. From April 1943 on Fidrmuc was paid by KO Portugal (KOP); the prisoner is not aware of the amount of these payments.
KV 2/198-3, page 71a + 72b (minute 187a)
Copy for 64447 (= Paul Georg Fidrmuc)
PF 65005 (destroyed) (AOB: isn't entirely true as KV 2/1457 being not digitally available, though, KV 2/1458 pdf copies are provided by the British National Archives)
19th November 1946
Dear Commander Scott,
As you are already aware, both <.I.6 and M.I.5. are particularly interested in the cases of Gessmann @ Alexander @ Alendorf and Fidrmuc in view of their close connections with the Czech Intelligence Service and because, during their sojour in Portugal, they were handled by the British.
Both men are extremely plausible and adroit and it does not surprise us to learn that difficulty has been experienced in the examination of their cases. May we, in answer to the plea for assistance in the last paragraph of your letter of 18th November (1946), recommend that "Mr. Johnson" of this office (M.I.5) who is visiting Switzerland and Austria on behalf of M.I.6 and ourselves in a few weeks time, be granted facilities for entering the American Zone of Germany and interrogation these two characters. He is a "walking brief" on their activities in the (Iberian) Peninsula, and M.I.6 strongly urge that his knowledge be utilised so that the highest dividends may be obtained from these cases. May we know whether this possibility is acceptable, and that steps it would be necessary to take to get his papers in order.
As far as additional background information is concerned we can only suggest that reference be made to the introduction of the Spanish Purple Primer, which although superseded by later interrogations, does give an outline of the set up: interrogation, does give an outline of the set up: reference to CSDIC (Combiner Services Detailed Interrogation Centre) reports on Kriminaloberassistent Gabriel Rossel (16.11.45) and Intelligence Division Report No. 83 on Krafft Simmross of 7.8.46, (spare copy attached). you will appreciate that there is no such thing as a War Room Liquidation Report on K.O. (Kriegsorganisation) Spain, as we hope to get all this information from the bodies (captives) at present under examination.
Lieut. Commander Winston Scott (Mil Attaché at the US Embassy in London SSU.
KV 2/198-3, page 76a + 77b (minute 185a)
1. Wilhelm Gustav Gessmann @ Jean Charles Alexander.
2. Paul Georg Fidrmuc.
It is of particular importance to us that we should get the bottom of these two cases (AOB: which they will not get!) and I am, therefore writing to ask whether you would agree to arrangements being made for the transfer of these two men to the British Zone so that their interrogation can be carried out to our satisfaction.
1. Gessmann is a high grade German agent whose penetration of the Allied Intelligence Service was extremely successful. He joined the Czech I.S. in Lisbon 1940 and he was able to betray to the Germans the Czech Intelligence network in Paris and Marseilles about November, 1941. He was responsible for the death of many members of the French Underground. His treachery was discovered by our Service and he left the Czech but managed to gain the confidence of the Americans who employed him for some time afterwards. In 1944, he went to Spain and from there to Berlin, but returned to Spain, still in German service, early in 1945. Finally, he overstepped himself by returning to Portugal last summer, but the Portuguese arrested him on 3.8.46 and, after interrogating him, deported him to Germany. He is now in gaol near Stuttgart and under interrogation by the Americans.
In view of Gesmann's close connection, through the Czech I.S., with our service, it is essential that everything is uncovered about his lines of communication from the U.K. There are also a number of points in connection with the Czech I.S. in the U.K. which are most anxious to clear up.
2. Fidrmuc is a German of Czech origin (actually Austrian-Hungarian) who has had a long intelligence career, first coming to notice in 1935. He was an
officerof I-H Berlin in Lisbon and from 1941 to the end of 1944(16th March 1945) when he was obliged to leave Portugal for Spain (Barcelona), he ran a network of agents over the British Empire, the U.S.A. and Egypt, etc. He was repatriated to Germany on 6.2.46 and interned in Camp 76. He arrived at USFET (United States Forces European Theatre) MIS Centre on 18.5.46.
The cases of Gessmann and Fidrmuc were handled throughout the war by us and not the Americans, and we have considerable interest in trying in tying up their cases properly. Both these men are extremely plausible and it seems to us essential that they should be dealt with by really competent and well briefed British interrogators. I make the request for their transfer only because of the extreme importance which we attach to their cases.
I shall be most grateful for an early reply,
(AOB: but it were the Americans who won the war, and Britain only because of them; but they weren't aware of it, yet)
Brigadier S.N. Shoosmith D.S.O. O.B.E.
70 H.Q. Intelligence Division,
KV 2/198-3 (minute 184b)
Extract from CI-PIR/122, USFET APO 757 on Obstlt. Schreiber dated 29 August 1946. dated 29. Aug. 1946.
In case of Paul Fidrmuc, Schreiber received orders from Berlin to contact Fidrmuc and give him a sealed envelope, and he was told that he was to receive similar sealed envelopes from Fidrmuc at intervals. These were to be labelled by a certain code-destination and by courier to Berlin. This code destination changed occasionally: the one which was used for the longest period was probably "Ostro" while others used were "Max" (??) and "Ernst". Schreiber claims that he was told that these letters pertained only to business and economic situations and were out of his field (= I-H). Consequently his position was simply that of a middle man with no interest in the subject matter at all. (AOB: whether this is true remains open)
Schreiber did not consider Fidrmuc as one of agents, but only as an added duty which might just as easily have been given to any of the other Refereate of the KOP. Schreiber believes that for some time prior to his arrival in Portugal, Fidrmuc turned in similar reports directly to the Embassy (AOB: attached to KOP) in Lisbon, which were then sent by diplomatic courier to Berlin.
KV 2/198-3 79a + 80b (minute 184a)
CI Preliminary Interrogation Report (CI-PIR) No. 123.
Prisoner: Fidrmuc, Paul
1. Personal Data:
Paul Fidrmuc was born 28 June 1898 in Jaegerndorf, Austria (AOB: later known as Sudetenland). He attended public schools in Lündenburg (Moravia), and after graduation from the Gymnasium in 1915, he entered the army as a volunteer. After the war (1918/19) he studied at the University of Wien (Vienna) and the Welthandelshochschule. (AOB: apparently due to the circumstances of the Austrian finances of his parents, he was forced to stop his academic study) In 1921 he acquired a position with an export-import firm in Lübeck, where, in the following years, he advanced quickly from manager to partner, and in 1928 established his own export firm in Hamburg. His business ventures were extremely successful and in the years between 1931 and 1939 he devoted most of his time to sports and travelling, and corresponded only with a limited number of personally-selected foreign firms. Fidrmuc became the European representative for various American, English, French, Italian, and German trade and industrial reviews, and submitted articles on the multiple aspects of world trade, including business forecasts. he acted as counsellor on commercial affairs to the Czechslovak Consulate in Hamburg until 1938. Early in 1940 he flew to Portugal as partner of the firm G. Brucker-Traus Lda., and settled there with his wife (Ragmor) and child (?). Fidrmuc was repatriated to Germany on 6 February 1946, and interned in Camp 76.
2. Administrative Data:
Fidrmuc has never been arrested (in Denmark 1939?). He arrived at USFET MIS Center on 18 May 1946 and was accepted at the request of G-2 (military intelligence), (CIB), USFET. Cf CPI Pink Card 87085.
3. Knowledge Brief:
Commercial activities in Portugal, 1940-1945.
a. Possible cooperation with German Intelligence Service
b. Ostro (Ref. CI War Room S.F. 52/4/28(1) Situation Report. No. 28).
c. Contacts in foreign countries.
4. Interrogation plan:
The interrogation will proceed according to knowledge brief.
5. Comments and recommendations:
The recipients of this report are requested to submit special briefs of any subjects upon which prisoner should be interrogated and to indicate the desired distribution of the resultant report.
For the Commanding Officer
1st Lt. Aus
Chief, CI Section
29 May 1946
Distribution "D" plus CI War Room and AC of S, G-2 Attn CI, US Forces, European Theater.
Closure KV 2/198
Please continue at:
By Arthur O. Bauer