The X-Ray Industry in Germany



Reported by:

Caperton B. Horsley, U.S. Civilian

on behalf of the

U.S. Technical Industrial Intelligence Committee


CIOS Target Nos.

1/132e, 1/144, 1/246, 9/37, 9/147, 21/180


Physical & optical Instruments & Devices


August 11, 1945


Kewords:    Technical developments on: Vacuum Tubes; X-Ray Equipment; Ultra High Voltage Equipment; Industrial X-Ray Techniques; Medical X-Ray ... ; Siemens-reiniger-Werke A.G. Rudolfstadt and Erlangen; C.H.F. Müller & Co hamburg; Rich.(ard?) Seifert & Co leipzig; Metallgussgesellschaft Leipzig; Siemens Organisations; N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken Eindhoven, Holland; german X-Ray Industry; The investigations started on 5 May 1945 and was completed in Bad Oeyenhausen on June 30, 1945; Most Siemens tubes used beryllium windows  whereas Müller did not use beryllium windows in most of their tubes that operated at less than 120 Kv.P. ... ; Accordingly Lindemann Glass windows are used for diffraction ... ; Two diffraction tubes with titanium targets were recently made by Siemens for Prof. Glocker, the German 'iron-expert" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute at Stuttgart .. ; To make chronium targets, Siemens electroplates chromium to a thickness of 1 mm ... ; Siemens used magnetic focussing on one of their diffraction tubes and obtained an effective focal spot size of 1 mm square ... ; A 300 Kv.P. 1000 ampere (10-7 second) cold cathode tube was developed by Prof. Herz (Hertz?) of Siemens and Halske in Berlin, and was used in the University of Nürnberg ... ; As a matter of "vacuum tube interest" It was reported that Dr. Bowers left the Philips (Eindhoven) organisation in 1939 or 1940 after a series of arguments with the management over the Metalix tube design.  ..... It is understood that after the management won this argument, Dr. Bowers purchased a small optical company in Delft; The unusually high voltage flexible cable construction permitted the use of flexibility connected end ground tubes, heads at 200 Kv.P. and higher .. ; .... Work was being done by Zeiss at Jena .. ; In 1942 Siemens also started production of a "new and improved Konvulsator" for administering electrical shock treatment for schizophrenia, etc. .. ; Ultra High Voltage Equipment ... C.H.F. Müller ... 25 megavolt betatron about the first of this year (1945?) ... ; In December 1944 the M.V. Research Association completed the calculations and layouts of a 200 megavolt betatron, to operate on 50 cycles ... This betatron was to be constructed by Brown Boveri and Cie A.G. in Heidelberg ... It is understood that Brown Boveri completed detailed construction drawings of this betatron about the first of March of this year (= 1945) ; Two betatrons had recently been constructed and were being tested at the Siemens-reiniger plant in Erlangen .... Prof. Bierman (Biermann?) of A.E.G. in Berlin was reported to be working on the design of a 20 megavolt betatron .. ; The Philips "cascade" circuit was used for the neutron generators .. ; .... Curie Institute Paris .. ; Curie Institute, Paris: "Largest cyclotron on the continent"'. Constructed under supervision of Prof. Bothe during german occupation .. ; Russia: "Three or four or more" cycloytron installations were reported to be in Russia .. ; Sources of Supply: ... Tantalium, Siemens & Halske, berlin was the only producer of tantalium in Europe. Note: All of the tantalium ore used in germany originally came from Australia. About 1939 Dr. Kolligs of Siemens & Halske in Berlin developed an economical method for refining tantalium from the large amount of refuse that had been accumulated from the previously used refining process. Because of this there was no shortage of tantalium in germany; Columbium (niobium) was also recovered as a by-product from the refuse tantalium ... ; Beryllium: Heraeus Vacuum Schmelze hanau Also Degussa Frankfurt .. Note Heraeus was owned by Siemens .. Degussa supplied berylium to Müller; Tungsten (=Wolfram) Osram berlin Also Deutsche Edelstahl Werke Berlin, factory in Reuthe Tyrol .. ; Molydenum same above; Glass Schott & genossen Jena .. Also Glaswerk Fischer Ilmenau: Also Glasfabrik Weisswasser G.m.b.H. (Owned by Philips); Transformer oil Rhenania-Ossag Hamburg .. High Tension Cable Siemens-Schuckertwerke Kabelwerk, Gartenfeld bei Siemensstadt berlin .. ; Special High resistance Wire Dr. Schildbach Rheinische Feinstahrindustrie (Feinstdrahtindustrie?, AOB); Special Paint I.G. Farben Frankfurt .. ; Siemens-Reinigerwerke .. Dr. Wölfel Chief Director .. dr. Albert Zimmer Head of Physical research Lab and X-Ray Tube Development .. ; Dr. Werner Jacoby Note Dr. jacoby was recently evacuated from Vienna, where he was in charge of research and development for all Siemens & Halske vacuum tubes except X-Ray ... ; The following figures will indicate the monthly production of this plant as of March of this year (= 1945) ... 




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