BIOS Surveys Report No. 29

Telecommunications and Equipment in Germany during the period 1939-1945

From the index page it is clear that this survey was accomplished by members of the British G.P.O.


Keywords: Permanent magnets; 5000Z; ceramics polystyrene condensers .. their power factor is even lower than that of mica condensor (Styroflex Cs, polystyrene film), nothing comparable was available in Britain or America, but the technique is not likely to be unduly difficult; Chlorinated naphthalene dielectrics ... ; Z-wax; Metallized paper condensors were made by thechnique originated in Germany before the war; telephone instruments; cables for communications; contacts for relays; substitutes e.g. gold with 5% nickel was found to be an excellent substitute for platinum; sound recordings, magnetophon, 1 + 3 circuit carrierr system (=S-system) for loaded cable, L.t.t. and S.E.L.T.); MG15; a number of wideband cables of interesting construction were laid and equipped between the main centrescarrier telephony; L-System (1 + 1 cable), S-System (1 + 3 cable), MG15 15 open wire ... , MEK8 (8 open wire) Mittelton Telegrafie; The German coaxial system routes cables: Berlin-Munich (being extended to Vienna) : Berlin-Hamburg : Berlin-Frankfurt a/M : Frankfurt-Cologne : Berlin-Hannover : Berlin-Leipzig; coaxial cables with Styroflex dielectrics, each cable is arranged to be equipped with 200 telephone channels at 3 kHz spacing in the range 90-690 kHz, together with subscriber television (Fernseh) channel between 1 and 2 MHz ....carrier generating bays .. 60 kHz crystal oscillator controls a 3 kHz oscillator via a 57 kHz difference frequency .; like amplifiers (telephone channels); repeater arrangementsat approx. 35.5 km and are large underground attended stations with full battery power supplies .. ; Intermediate repeater stations at the 17.5 km points are unattended; On the Berlin-Hamburg cable power for the unattended repeaters is normally derived from the power mains but can be transmitted over the coaxial cable if the supply fails; V.F. Telegraph system .. 18-channel system constructed in 1935 .. ; filters no evidence is seen of Cauer, Piloy and Feldtkeller filters, mostly employs Zobel methodes, Sendust cores, Japanese origine superior to nickel iron in certain respects, for filfers rolled Styroflex units largely replaced mica; star-quad (Vierer-Kabel)(Stern-kabel); For the 12-channel carrier systems loaded quad cable with Styroflex insulation has been developed. A typical cable has 1.2 mm copper conductors loaded with 1.75 mH coils at 284 metres the attenuation was 0.05 nÚpers/km at 60 kHz allowing 100-120 km repeater spacing; Organistaion of the German Telecommunications Industry; Siemens and ITT (Lorenz O.A.B.X. The I.T.T. group is American owned and manufactured equipment to Reichspost standards, this equipment being largely identical and interchangable with Siemens-made equipment; relation between reichspost Reichsbahn and manufacturers; General character of automatic exchange equipment before the war - the two-motion selctor - ribbon cable wiring, this allows inspection of the bank soldering which is a point of some importance in reducing the service difficulties of dry joints; relays the Siemens & Halske flat-type relay was standardized for telephone exchanges in Germany ... ; feathures of automatic exchange layout and design; rural automatic exchanges; local junction working; toll junction working; Reichsbahn Switching and Signalling System; Automatization Policy of the Reichspost; Automatic Exchange design motor Uniselector Switching, new switching schemes;Examination of German developments in relation to British practice; Telegraph instrument design Siemens&Halske Telex-Type 68 .. only 15 prototype models were produced. This machine is undoubtly an interesting development, Feldschreiber (Feldfernschreiber!); Picture telegraph; Subscribers apparatus; Carbon transmitters, receivers, capacitors; Dials and other impulsing devices; coin-collecting telephones; Flamerproof equipment; Privacy equipment (scrambler), secret teleprinterstime-scrambling; Power plant; The most remarked difference between German and British practice is the use of small circuit-breakers. The german designs are not new but the circuit-breakers are of excellent construction.  ... circuit breakers for house lightening and small motor installations. It is unique in that it provides both magnetic and therminal overload protection in small enclosures which can be inserted into standard screw type fuse socket (Stotz!!); Organisation of German Radio development .. BHF .. Lorenz transmitter (Goliath, Calbe); Radio Communication in the super high-frequency range .. it seems that multi-channel systems were being developed and in particular centimetre-wave multi-channel pulse modulated radio equipment was being designed but was never actually in operation; Ernst Orlich Institute, Ernst Lecher Institute .. ; Applications of ultrasonics to physics and biology. Siemens-Schuckertwerke did much work in applying ultrasonic vibrations to various physical and chemical processes ...; piezoelectric crystals  ... 1944 400,000 were produced 10 firms Telefunken - Zeiss and Steeg & Reuter. Zeiss produced 10,000 quartz BT plates for oscillations directly at 60 MHz by wringing them on to optical flats and hand-lapping with rouge, and it is interesting to note that turmaline plates up to 400 MHz had been produced by skilled operators; radio-sonde transmitters; quartz clocks PTR Dr. Adelsberger and R&S CFQ tuning-fork, valves Valvo Hamburg proximity fuses 1941 valves tested for 30,000 g, Telefunken metal-ceramic valves anodes of iron plated with aluminium or thorium were extensively used, and it appears that thorium in particular gave an improved cacuum. Ceto geter; Thorium powder was made into sheets, rod, and wire by Telefunken who were possibly the only firm in the world to do this; Ceto getter composed of thorium aluminium and cerium was extensively used in form of a paste applied to the surface of metal components and also to insides of envelopes; radio components industry .... the report states, that electrically and mechanically the best firms were ahead of the United Kingdom in this field .. components of high stability, particularly those for use in communication systems; conclusion ... the report give the impression that in the early stages of the war Germany was well advanced in materials research and could as a result produce outstanding designs in some details of radio equipment. In the general development and engineering of H.F. communication systems, however, the Germans displayed less initiative and originality than the Allies so that, as the war advanced and their efficiency decreased due to inadequate co-ordination of associated branches of industry, they fell behind in communication technique     



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