During our annual Foundation Board meeting held on 13 November 2010 (Jaarvergadering), it was pointed that it would make sense to keep a Web-Agenda, as to show what our actual commitments are. It will be possible to inform web-visitors about what we are planning and what we actually are doing; as well as getting an idea what has been done in the past. It is evident that it will take some time to build up this new webpage.
Initiated on: 19 November 2010
Current status: 25 March 2017
We would like to keep the actual subjects in the upper section and then going backwards in time.
I have to apologize, that maybe not all has been worded in a logical order, as what has been noticed so far, is directly resulting from my memories. It might happen that something is more emphasized upon than other subjects. Simply, because it is better accessible in my actual mind. My aim is, however, that when the time passes by that my recollections will be filling-in some of these gaps.
New plans, and what already has been achieved, my personal reflections on actual- historical - and/or hypothetical matters ...(AOB) :
Year 2017 ↓
25 March 2017: In the meantime since my foregoing reflections, quite some exciting moments have been experienced. Of course, the KLATT-OSTRO-JOSEOHINE project progressed better than one could ever imagine; we may consider that now about 19,000 pages copies have been digested! The point has reached where the entire project is actually full fit into my brains. A PowerPoint presentation has been prepared which consists currently of 119 slides. This may be acceptable for my 'Peenemünde' talk in late April, but exceeds what is allowed for my Reform Club contribution, on 12 May. For it, Phil will come over, so that a quite slim version can be composed. Among the new materials recently got from Phil, is a range of RSS (Radio Security Service) files in the HW series. Providing genuine (albeit translated) messages; reading these through, one comes so near to history as possible. Some messages have been showed to Rudolf Staritz (now enjoying an age of 95), once an Abwehr W/T operator in the station Stansdorf and also in Hitler's HQ in the Ukraine ("Irene" in Schloss Worowoniza) in 1942. He still can vividly remember some of the call-signs once used, for example between Berlin and KLATT's W/T station in Sofia; but also between "Irene" - Sofia. Also totally unexpected harsh operational comments; of which Staritz told me, that such kind of message-exchange were strictly prohibited. Hans Goulooze is successfully working on getting our FuBl 3F operational again. The device once bought in Germany proved to have been owned by a formerly French friend. It was, however, necessary to buy on EBay the motor-tuning section as well as the accompanied FBG2 again. These sections interact now accordingly. A web report will follow in due course. The Tfb 2 project is progressing rather well, on Thursday the power supply has been measured and unexpected good parameters being encountered; incorporating three YouTube films.
1 February 2017: Quite some time has been passed since my last reflection. The extra Secret Communications 2 event was held on 14 January 2017, which was again a great success; we counted that very day 129 visitors; bear in mind, that a great deal arrive shortly after 10 'o clock and leaving when I closed the door about 6 PM. Adding the numbers of special guests who visited the exhibition outside the regular hours, we counted about 600 guests; for us an unprecedented figure! A wide range of photos series can be found on our website. Since two weeks the Crypto exhibits have been moved to Eindhoven again; and we have started with re-arranging the exhibition; with the support of Wouter Elzinga and Hans Goulooze. Of course, most devices will return at their usual places, because these have proved to be optimal; but our aim is also putting some apparatus on display which haven't been showed for some time, though, also displaying items or systems which never before have been put on display. As so often - when I cannot sleep - all went through my mind again and suddenly a new idea popped up: why not demonstrating an operational 'field carrier telephony' system? For it I would like to build up two Tfb 2 units constituting a 'carrier telephone link' system (station A and B). One channel being the regular DC (NF) link, the second channel being carrier controlled; hence a wire pair conveying two different, non interfering, voice channels. These (Siemens) systems are designed quite ingenious. Only for your understanding what it is about, imagine:- post A is transmitting USB towards post B; whilst post B sends in LSB towards post A. The carrier oscillators are also functioning as synchronous carriers for the according ring-modulators, where at the output a sound LF signal will result. So far only the two cases have been placed on the table, quite next to one another; one regular in its case, the second one placed open on a rotatable disk. My idea, is, we mount a FF 33 (field)telephone next to the Hütte Peiler set up. A cable connection should run towards the Tfb 2 unit (say, A). From the other unit (unit B) we would like to pick up the signal, including the 'bell signals'. These signals might be send towards a so-called 'Klappenschrank' (field exchange) and from there to other telephones at choice. Maybe even a regular outside telephone-dial-interconnection is possible. We are looking for someone who is willing to assist us in our new endeavour. Also a new project is, Deo volente, due to come; namely implementing an EBL 2 and accompanied EBL 3F with its remote controlled channel-selector (FBG 2). Maybe Hans Goulooze will assist us in this project. My aim is to control the "Funkblindlande-Anlage" (blind-landing gear) from the genuine Siebel 204 'Funktisch'. The various test signals being generated by means of the 'PSU-0 B' apparatus; constituting an artificial beacon source. However, not everything is (personally) running great, as last Saturday 28 January (2017), was, in my perception, a quite bleak day; because at the SRS AGM a big row in the board of the 'Surplus Radio Society' causing a dead-lock (the chairman has, and likely others have- or will, in due course, step-down). Sad, because I consider it worth of getting a new elected board, as soon as possible; though without a SRS Bulletin this hardly will work out accordingly. Nevertheless, my KLATT - OSTRO project, by pure coincidence, got an enormous boost. As so often in my life, owing to pure coincidence (is it really pure?), the already huge project is merely exploding. The reason is curious: On Monday morning I join in the gym a group lesson (body shape); a new female teacher being introduced. I discovered that she originates from Portugal. You might remember, that OSTRO operated in Lisbon. Wouldn't it be a nice idea getting some photos of buildings and/or houses which once had been linked with OSTRO's history? But for such an endeavour you need exact address data. My dbase didn't provide it accurately, so a new document approach should be undertaken. In KV 2/197 M.I.5 servants discussed the possibility "whether it would be possible to turn around (Doubled Cross) Josephine and Hektor?" We know now that this consideration was impossible, but M.I.5. wasn't aware of it! One of the documents consisted of a small card-sheet containing various data; among it a 'PF' number which I didn't recognise. Having all the time the British National Archives website on one of my computer screens instantly accessible, I entered the PF reference and got 14 hits all with successive KV 2/ ... numbers and all carrying the same title; resulting in a bunch of 2548 document pages (1.26 GB PDF data)! All being downloaded and printed. Their implications are striking, as it deals with a German intelligence organisation in Stockholm, including contacts with the Japanese military attaché ONODERA, vice verse; but far more interactions existed too. Such as Hungarian Intelligence links within the Iberian Peninsula sending intelligence information, via-via, towards Sweden! The pile of the documents pages dealt with have passed since >> 15,000; not counting the accompanied literature. Therefore Phil and I have decided to adapt our working title in: KLATT - OSTRO - JOSEPHINE. Also a Seminar has been scheduled for 25th November 2017 on Nachtfee; giving demonstrations and two lectures, Deo volente, of course. Wim Witt, PA 0 WDW, has been so kind to design a nice pencil-drawing, which allows me to create a kind of animation strip, where we can follow the many implications of signalling in the "domain of time" in conjunction to an moving (displacing) aircraft.
Year 2016 ↓
12 December 2016: Our first three Secret Communications 2 days have been successfully accomplished. It worked all out far better than one can dream of! On 12 November 2016 we counted 114 visitors. The second day held on 19 November, 100 guest were coming along. However, on 3rd December, we hosted 194 visitors! Both on 12 November and on 3 December Tatjana Joëlle van Vark gave her magnificent demonstrations. For it we decided, Deo volente, to implement an additional 'open day' to be held on 14 January 2017. It has to be noticed though, that Tatjana will not be present on the 14th; because this would be too much exhausting for her. During the many discussions, I realised that there still exists great interest in Nachtfee. I have, Deo volente, decided to focus on a special Nachtfee day with two lectures (one in the late morning, the second in the afternoon), somewhere in November 2017. In a discussion with Peter van Kats, he suggested that I should contact Wim Witt (PA 0 WDW), because he is a gifted 'tekenaar' sadly in my dictionary they do not provide just the right word for it: designer, no! However, within a few days he painted just the illustration I am so desperately looking for. This drawing will form the base of my new explanation approach. The main difficulty with the Nachtfee concept, is, to explain to laymen, what happens within 'the domain of time' when the to be transmitted data concerns a 'single' signal phase-shift whilst the 'to be commanded' aircraft moves in space at the same time as well; constituting (causing) by itself already a continuously progressing phase-shift. As already have been dealt with, is my KLATT/OSTRO survey. My first challenge, Deo volente, is in April next year (Germany); where I should give a full hour or more talk on my KLATT-OSTRO research. Followed secondly, on 12 May in London, where I should deal with the same subject; but have to alter my approach slightly because of the audience. Finally, a dual presentation in England with my good friend Phil Judkins. However, the number of document pages to cope with have reached far beyond 10,000! Please open this photo-link, as to see what currently is still to be done, please realise - that the main bulk have already been dealt with. It has to be stored in a dual way, first in our huge dbase (accessible on the web as well, albeit it with some delay), secondly in someway or another being 'converted' into my data-word-file, which is already 185 pages deep. For it I have often to transcribe text passages when these, in my perception, contain essential information. The future advantage, is, that since it is possible to simply select and paste it into another document; or tracing keywords by simply using the search option. However, all is most time consuming; though also utmost tantalising, indeed.
4 October 2016: Quite some time have passed since my last agenda/reflection considerations. Work on the KLATT-Ostro proceeded successfully and an additional 6000 new pages have been downloaded (and printed) from The British National Archives. Haven't we reached the end of the line? Apparently not yet. Most interesting sources have come to light. I must admit, this only works effectively as long as one possesses a great deal of sound memory. Otherwise, names of Abwehr members will not let ringing bells. But also some amount of luck being engaged as well. We found briefly original interrogation files on: Trautmann I i Hbg, Huntermann (England- Nordpolspiel), Lindemans (King-Kong), Kuebart once Leiter I H West succeeded by Mil. Amt B Leiter as well as being a key figure in the capture of Johann Jebsen (Jonny and Artist), Dr. Schreiber of KOP, Brandes's files, which were, in my perception, judged incorrectly by MI 5; failing was Jebsen himself, KLATT-Moritz complex, Turkul, Ritter (Dr. Rantzau) a bunch of files, and very many more documents. Quite some do change my understanding of these complex days. Various books being obtained as well. I consider this has become a lifetime project. Very interesting it becomes - when one interrogation report confirms the content of another file; actually proving that both were telling the truth.
18 July 2016: Rather busy times have been passed recently, actually it is still continuing. Phil Judkins and I are both heavily engaged in a future project on very curious espionage matters (title not yet been settled), hardly known yet to the general public and even beyond. Why 'not yet'? Because these facts have never been fully unravelled by British I.S. Services (among it M.I.5 and M.I.6). Although, British I.S. could read almost all German W/T messages from say late 1941 and early 1942 onwards. Bletchley Park did an enormous successful and most significant job! Rightly designated "Most Secret Source". And - most secret it indeed was! The downside, was, that it was very delicate with whom the knowledge could be shared. However, they could read German W/T traffic on daily bases (but apparently it took some days before the translated decrypts reached the applicants), the German sources were not always clear to determine. Two persons were so much intriguing - that British I.S have been bothering with their many implications for decades after the war. I suppose - that mentioning their "nom-de-guerre" Klatt and Ostro will still even the dead wake-up in real panic; albeit, that, in post-war days, for their own sake they have 'constructed' some hypothetical solutions. Sadly, these being copied without critical notes and/or objections, since! But, saying it frankly - they never could bring the 100 % proof! Very fortunate - the British National Archives provides now most of these genuine documents; many being kept in the HW .. and KV ... series. During wartime days these were classified "Top Secret" or "Tsec U" or that like! Phil came over for a couple of days in last May discussing the route of our mutual endeavour. We are aiming for a very comprehensive presentation in Autumn 2017. It all started with a few pages copied from a comparable file, this time about German wartime intelligence communications with outside Europe (eDEN April 2015.); I was instantly so tantalised that I copied the according pages and did send them to my old friend Rudolf Staritz (then 93 years old and luckily in the possession of a very smart brain still). A few weeks later I visited him in Bamberg and asked him whether he liked it (of course, he did). He asked me: do you know what MAX was? I had to admit that I had not the slightest idea. He then briefly explained that it concerned a German intelligence network, headed by a private person called KLATT*, an Austrian-Jew; his real name was Richard Kauder. His network dealt with both Russian strategic intelligence, known as "Max" and "Moritz" (neglecting some minor networks); the latter dealing with information around the eastern Mediterranean theatre, just the area controlled by British S.I.M.E. The British R.S.S. services monitored German W/T communications extensively around the clock. We should consider, that not all could have been intercepted from Britain, but that for practical reasons they must at least have maintained intercept facilities in Egypt. However, from late 1941 onwards, they could read KLATT's communications from the "I Luft Meldekopf KLATT" Sofia (Bulgaria), also known as: "Dienststelle Klatt". They recognised that information was being dealt with of a most high (delicate) value. Their first opinion was oh: this surely must concerns a Russian Double Cross game; but it continued to flow. In the course of 1942, some unrest was arising, because the messages flowed vividly further. Verifications with what was resulting of the forecasted German Max messages - its high degree of validity could be proved. A dilemma arose, how to inform the Russians, without exposing (revealing) Britain's utmost valuable "Most Secret Sources"? This dragged on for quite a while. However, about autumn (2015) Phil provided some quite extensive files containing series of W/T messages concerning the KLATT network ending abruptly on 12 February 1945. One cannot imagine what happens with you jumping into a pool of say 4 years of lively communications, between KLATT and the daily concerns of the people (agents) engaged v.v. Among the materials were also interrogations of a Double Cross spy: Andre Gross alias Gyorgy, the latter's name was used on the British S.I.M.E. side. However, last May Phil approached the NA via the web from my study room. He entered the keyword: Abwehr - resulting in a series of just over 1,400 hits. I must admit, that, because interested in these kind of subjects since 1963, roughly 10% was more or less familiar to me, not in great detail but the personalities and/or codenames involved! We downloaded a bunch of about 5300 pages! Some of which I am re-reading (currently) in great detail and making all sorts of notes and yellow markings; previously having stored some keywords in our huge dbase! Among it were also files concerning Paul Georg Fidrmuc alias Ostro. All my attention was raised by reading "Top Secret" considerations of the British "XX Committee"; dealing with plans to 'assassinate' Ostro in Portugal, because he rightly predicted a few days before the actual execution over 'Operation Overlord', the area and the about time schedule in late May 1944! In London all alarm bells rang, most understandingly! It will take me still several weeks before all the content of KV 2/196 up to KV 2/201 comprehensively can be re-digested (absorbed). For someone not being acquainted with German systems, the stuff can hardly be fruitful! We should also remember:- that British I.S. wrongly believed that they had been unbeaten during WW II. But, we all know well now the embarrassing 'Cambridge five guys'. Consequently, among it Philby's and Blunt's names will be quite often encountered in the many files concerned. What M.I 5 and M.I. 6 found difficult to deal with was after all in vain, because Kim Philby and Blunt kept Russian Secret Services well informed on what was going on at the British S.I.S. side; a real disaster (blamage)! What to think of KLATT's file, he sadly died in 1953 (after suffering several strokes, also being very poor indeed), but his file was being accessed still in 2003, after he was already 50 years dead! (he is no exception!) Do not wonder, that quite some pages still being kept blank with very briefly informing that all is according a Public law act of 1958 (dated 2004 or this like); not a few number of pages, but quite some will be encountered. By the way, both Richard Kauder and Fidrmuc were private persons; albeit, that Klatt was running a real (military) Abwehr branch. What is our main aim? To deal this time with an entirely new environment, where there was no real glamour afterwards but severe struggle. We do not pretend to unravel the final truth, but revealing some unknown implications (aspects) only, always accompanying the context of history. Bearing always in mind, that the wartime days were most bleak and full of sufferings. We today are viewing the courses of history through peep-holes; the broad understanding about these bleak times, can therefore hardly be reproduced. Maybe, some of you may raise the question: what has all this to do with:- German Communication and related Technology? Simply - the whole is about 'wireless communications'; without it - Bletchley Park would only constitute today a place on a map, nothing else! However, quoting from a previous notation: In many respect, we are coming so near to this intriguing subject - that we virtually have become part of it; albeit, far away from those gloomy bleak times, sitting on a comfortable couch or desk chair. * Staritz told me, that just a few weeks ago a most comprehensive study has been published on KLATT (March 2015), by Dr Winfried Meyer (1225 text pages omitting the references; in German language) accompanied by countless scientific 'real' foot notes. Consequently, I instantly ordered two book copies, one for Phil and one for me. For historians and those interested in a very comprehensive survey, please start your approach with: ISBN: 978-3-86331-201-5
16 March 2016: Quite exciting days have passed since my previous contribution to this webpage. First, I received an e-mail from an American collector/HAM who did possess a unit belonging to the former Berlin FuG 224 radar system. I was immediately tantalized seeing this utmost rare device. Which I thought would never appear in my foreseeable life. But apparently I was wrong. After negotiations and a quite demanding packing and transportation all went well and about 23rd February 2016, I could pick up the crate in Eindhoven. My excitement can only be felt by those in equal position. Holding in my hands matters which was thought being impossible to obtain; since the building up process and explaining the various aspects on the web. Another rather shocking experience is encountered recently. I had a quite good friend, who passed away late last year sadly, I knew him since about 1971. Over, say, 45 years he was able to build-up a rather impressive collection of artefacts. Maybe not built-up around systems, though very good quality devices have been gathered within his collection. With a great sense for patience and vision he obtained nice - and often rare apparatus. So far so good. He passed away, but his deteriorating health and suffering life lasted still for quite many years. However, I recently discovered, that his entire collection had been sold to an unknown entity. Two weeks ago I discussed with my friend Luca Fusari general matters, and he proudly mentioned that he recently obtained a Main or Wupper receiver from The Netherlands. Price quite reasonable; although, it had not yet arrived in Italy. Wow, buying a Main or Wupper from Holland? There aren't many samples around worldwide. For me the only plausible possibility was - it should once have belonged to Y. X's collection. He gave me a quite obscure URL, which I never heard of before. Then I spoke to some else, who also had discovered this obscure address when searching on the web for German communication apparatus. What bothers me really most, is - that someone collects with great dedication for most of his life, with exceptional results; and that one passes away and his hole dedication being lost within a few month time. He is to blame first, because when time still permitted - he apparently refused to decide upon what should be done with it. In comparable cases, sometimes a matter of revenge being involved, because they never appreciated what the victim bore really in mind. I will not say that this was the objective here, but the usefulness of collecting successfully with great strategy, vision and passion is being lost, for pecunia only. That is why my wife and myself have established our Foundation in 1994.. We will and cannot foresee what the future might bring, but decisions should be careful taken; in other words - taking off short-term pressure. What the future might bring on the long run is another matter. This aspect bothers me every day, and I must admit - that I don't have found an answer, yet. I do also realise, that this should be the concern of all serious collectors. There are in fact two major kinds of collectors in the world. Those with an egoistic attitude, and on the other side of the spectrum, those open to the public or at least doing something with their collection. The latter group I can live with, the first group I cannot accept. My late friend was quite open to others and shared often his findings. Life experience taught me - that the non-egoistic humans will not be encountered too often. Amen.
3 January 2016: The year 2015 was a rather successful year for us, albeit, that not every project progressed like was expected; in particular our Magnetophon project. May we bring this intriguing project finally to a good end, or, at least, progressing well. Our Open Day event held on 21 November was very well attended and we counted 45 visitors. I was very pleased, that the chairman of the SRS did gave me a 'life long membership' with one obligation: I should continue the way we are doing. For me a most wonderful gift. After some hesitation I could finally find the drive to start building our Rubidium frequency standard to a working system. Nachtfee is working again but now at will controlled by means of a Rb-frequency standard. When this is being used as signal source only minimal temperature drift within the delay-line goniometers (Selsyns or Drehfeldgeber). Never encountered before - an 'Order' or Command signal staying without drifting away! Yesterday 2nd January 2016, I attended a funeral of Cas Caspers (PA 0 CSC), an old collectors friend since about 1971/72. Time passes too fast and we should always bear in mind that one should prevent for wasting or spoiling time. Tomorrow 4th January I would like to initiate a final test series in conjunction to Nachtfee. This time replacing temporarily our Rb-frequency standard against a PM 5193 synthesizer. In this case, we would have on both system-sides similar frequency sources (ground and simulated aircraft). I would like to investigate whether Nachtfee could have been successfully operated with stability factors of 10-8 on either side (ground console versus aircraft system). Quite disappointing, for me, is the fact that our Wassermann Survey has to be stopped due to lack of sufficient documentation on the interconnections between the P-Gerät and the rest of a Freya LZ apparatus. Schematics we possess, but these cover the electronics inside the P-Gerät, but to understand what circuitries are about, I have to understand where else it once have been interconnected with. The available cable-plan covers only wiring between two junction boxes, but there must have existed other cable plans as well.
Year 2015 ↓
10 November 2015: Quite some time have been passed since - and I have been able to continue working on the Mammut, Wassermann and Seeburg Tisch. The Mammut Survey designated Compulsive Hoarding and - Eine Entdeckungsreise (Adventure) - might have reached a conclusion. What might be yet an option is getting done X-Rays of our Stichleitung device. This tuneable stub has been measured in Marc Simons' lab. on a HP Network analyser. The results being shown in a series of .png plots. This unique approach is making public what once had been achieved. The Wassermann Survey, once started with the feeling that - as far as we came in our Mammut Survey - I would not be able to come. However, without laying every aspect on a 'gold balance' in depth - we have come rather far, nonetheless. Seeburg table or Tisch is a far more limit endeavour. I have tried to combine side-knowledge with transcriptions - some in great detail. On Saturday 21 November we are, Deo volente, having an 'Open museum day' for the public. A reason hesitating for an Open Day, was - that we should show really new items and/or apparatus. In the afternoon of the 21st I, Deo volente, would like to give a PowerPoint presentation on both - my Mammut- and Wasserman Adventure. It is now about two years since that we facilitated a broader open exhibition. Another reason for hesitation was that in 2013 we have provided quite many 'open days'. Of which 'Secret Communications' was a most successful project. I would like, Deo volente, to schedule for a 'Secret Communication 2' somewhere in November / December 2016. Paul and Marc have obtained quite some new - most rare - artefacts - which would allow for a nearly complete new exhibition; maybe the Enigmas should be repeated - constituting a real sexy - Dauerbrenner.
8 September 2015: Some time have been passed since my foregoing reflection. The summer holidays were used for new thoughts, as well as working on one of our main topics: The Mammut Wassermann project. Although, Wassermann has not yet been subject of a real investigation, be it - that materials have been successfully gathered. Time was also found for creating a simplified Mammut webpage, meant for laymen; a first step to a Dutch language leaflet (folder), meant for visitors to the Wijk aan Zee Mammut radar bunker. We also obtained a quite rare Gema module known as: OB-Gerät which display unit was widely employed in almost every Gema related radar system (Freya - Seetakt - Mammut - Wassermann and Jagdschloss). This latter artefact does fit well into our current Jagdschloss set up. Today, I realised myself - that in this particular field - we might have reached the limit of what realistically is possible. I cannot imagine where we could find additional Gema modules or other means. It looks like - as if all the rest have been vanished. Likely, because it are not very attractive devices; which cannot be used for another purpose. During my summer holidays, I could digest almost all of the study on Klatt, the cover name of Richard Kauder; the Jewish 'V-Mann' also known for his 'Max' and 'Moritz' Meldungen (WTmessages). All the glorious stories told - on how smart the Allied agents might have been, however - they were never capable finding out where these - most significant - massages really originated from. Meyer's study covered, neglecting references and sources, say, 1232 pages - of which I have digested until today 1185 pages. Mayer's study is most comprehensive, and Klatt's messages were mostly read by British intelligence. These - now accessible sources - prove what real impact the 'Max' messages must have had. Fremde Heere Ost (FHO)(Gehlen) relied quite heavily, for a rather long time, on this source of information; their nature was: strategic - not of a tactical nature. Very interesting, the many confusions on the British side. First: Don't worry - this apparently is a Russian 'double cross' game. Then, after checking the relevance of the Max messages over a quite long period of time, they came to the conclusion: that - who could be so stupid playing a double cross game with their enemy and giving - so long - so much - advanced information away to them? All those involved have passed away since for many decades, and one of the unresolved - pregnant queries - still stays open in the world. Nix glorious knowing everything and being smarter than all others in the world. Quite some effort was spend in post war days, with finally minimal results. Here we encounter an aspect that apparently escaped this 'idée fix'. Was this one the only exception? [Winfried Meyer, Klatt - Hitlers jüdischer Meisteragent gegen Stalin: Überlebenskunst in Holocaust und Geheimdienstkrieg, Metropol Verlag 2015, ISBN 978-3-86331-201-5]. The scientific approach of this book has the consequence - that readers should only start reading (digesting) it when you can understand and read the German language comprehensively. For me very convenient, is - that all footnotes are to be find down each page; I hate having them at the far end of a publication! Why making life so difficult all the time? One lesson to be learned - someone can be successful during the exceptional wartime days though, failing in peacetime. Another, most interesting, aspect - how was the German Abwehr acting during the war. Rudolf Staritz pointed some weeks ago during my visit in Bamberg: such way of organisation (tolerance and backing) was only possible in the (Austrian) Vienna surrounding (atmosphere). Both, Richard Kauder as well as his commanding officer Oberst (Colonel) Rudolf von Marogna-Redwitz have had Austrian backgrounds. Also very exceptional - nearly all persons dealt with in this publication do have a brief life description; believe me - there are many! By the way, Rudolf Staritz gave us a quite rare valve type: TU50 (TU 50) . This valve was designed and produced by the Fernseh G.m.b.H. Its application was within the aircraft TV signal transmitter code-name Tonne. My wife Karin has created some new, what we designate 'logos'. This time I did ask here whether it might be possible to create a compilation of artefact interiors where I have a penchant for? I must admit - she was, in the beginning, not responding very enthusiastically. Since some month she was adding poem text into here photo compositions, but these were in Italian language. On the German radio, like the Deutschlandfunk - the sentence: Denk ich an Deutschland ... often followed by someone's reflection on a Germany related subject (original text: Denk ich an Deutschland in der Nacht, dann bin ich um den Schlaf gebracht). After some considerations she converted the text in: Denk ich an deutsche Technik in der Nacht, dann bin ich um den Schlaf gebracht (frei nach Heinrich Heine). I would like to keep this logo for some time on the web, as it constitutes a binding symbol to our commitments, before selecting her second compilation.
7 - 25 July 2015: It is already quite a long time ago that I contributed onto this webpage. We have worked, joined by Jaap Keijzer, on the Magnetophon project, though, encountered quite some nuisance, because the capstan motor of the recorder type AW 1 is playing mad after a short while of running. Today, I tested another sample, though, this particular motor runs at a double speed, thus was meant for an operational speed of 76.2 cm/s instead of 38.1 cm/s. We have got another machine in a rather desolate state, but I would like to know first, whether it can be obtained or swopped. I also worked on a rather interesting antenna tuning device called Abstimmeinsatz a. In the beginning I was quite interested in getting photos belonging to its mounting box FJD. Fortunately, Danny Zwart contacted me and was putting a query onto me; about a device he could buy in Belgium. This device was a huge slotted line (type ES 2 made by GEMA), which we finally have swopped. He also gave me a chance taking photos from his curious box. In May we visited the 'Atlantikwall bunker group' in The Hague and did give them some gear on loan. The end of May we joined a bunker group in Wijk aan Zee. Particularly visiting the V 143 Mammut bunker (KM), which was once part of the 'Fortress (Festung) IJmuiden'. I promised them that I will write a popular paper on Mammut. Shortly thereafter I collected all the bits and piece we possess in our archives; and started with setting up a Wanted page first - on who can help us with documentation on Mammut and Wassermann. Then it became apparent, that we should start up with a new webpage called: Mammut-Wassermann dedicated purely on explaining its technology. It started with a coincidental book that was just brought out in France, by Alain Chazette and colleagues. In it I was tantalized noticing that interesting materials on Mammut was in their possession. I contacted Mr Chazette and asked him whether we may use some of his materials. This was allowed, of course, with proper acknowledgement. Then he asked me whether I could identify some German radar bits and pieces remaining after the German surrendered in France. Then he did sent me interesting materials, more than was used in his recent book. This material formed the nucleus of the new webpage. Thereafter, Phil Judkins supplied new materials found at NA (Kew). Wow, again a big boost. Nearly instantly followed up by Mike Dean, who did send me some most interesting technical photos which he copied in 1993. This combination of coincidental findings and unknown materials and being capable combing these all together is a real penchant of mine. However, then I was confronted with a phenomenon that I knew already, though never have been aware of so profoundly. This latter project was called a Survey - and I did put an in German language spelled: Eine Entdeckungsreise at the introduction. The Mammut-Wassermann survey I felt it as being an explorer who don't know what the next day would bring him. It is just this way of thinking (attitude) that makes it difficult for quite some to appreciate what I am doing. In it I express and reflect my: inner thoughts - feelings - intensions - doubts and failures - always accompanying such kind of Survey; like was the Nachtfee Survey too. It is strange: some people tend to think rather structured, and can be dedicated for many years on a single tiny subject. On the other hand some of those do not enfold an open mind in respect to other ways of thinking. The Mammut survey is not yet concluded, as still some minor matters have to be dealt with. Next should be dealt with Wassermann radar; though we have quite less materials at hand. However, still some intriguing stuff to deal with. I promised the bunker guys that I also will make a simplified version, more meant for laymen. Thus quite some work is laying ahead and is waiting for accomplishment. An interlude was being caused by Prof. Hugh Griffiths - who suggested that I should give it the title: 'Compulsive Hoarding'e - after some reflections I wrote a comment that this does make sense.
30 March 2015: Quite some time have past since our last agenda update. Sadly, a severe delay have been caused in the Magnetophon project, due to problems with the capstan motor (Tonmotor). Jaap Keijzer is supporting us and is undertaking action to solve the problems. Demanding patience, which is for someone who is rather active quite a burden. However, we therefore are not able to continue the work on the Magnetophon's sound controlling system; because these controls will directly be interacting with the recording- and/or reproducing electronics. A mixture of engagements were also commenced. One, adding the still missing FIAT records. As to prevent working on a single subject only, my aim always is to make a wide variety of topics accessible on our website. Our most recent contributions are dedicated to a Siemens & Halske product guide of 1943, followed by the R&S product price-list of 1941 and a brief selection of 1949 product sheets. However, in the Siemens 1943 contribution, we encounter, among many other products topics, systems relying upon C3e valves. This mysterious valve type was once the subject of a story told in one of the Bell Labs Journals of March 1945 on a valve brought to New York in December 1944, for investigation. The Germans did remove, during their retreat from France and Belgium, all valves from particular crucial long distance telephone systems; but, not destroying the system itself. The concerned valve type C3e was an unique type in many respect. Its electrical specs differed but, importantly, its base was nowhere else used and its filament was 18 volt. As often, when personnel have to remove multi parts in great stress, something is being overlooked; also in this case. Three samples were found and conveyed in a great hurry to New York. Within three days they adopted (modified) an existing (US) valve base and changed mechanically a valve structure as to match to the specs of the genuine S&H valve type C3e. Three samples were flown back to Europe and proved to be a workable substitute. Within three weeks 1000 samples were produced (by WE) and conveyed to Europe. Last year, I considered a 'sabbatical', and the uncertainty of my pending medical treatment about the beginning of this year. Time has, Deo volente, come to focus on 'an open day to the public' in the fall of this year. In accordance with Hans Muijser of the SRS, we have selected: Saturday 21st November 2015. An additional reason for delaying access to the public was the fact - that visitors do expect generally something new on display. This truly is the case, as can be noticed on our introduction page; of which quite some have never been on display elsewhere before.
4 February 2015: I just have finished an annoying job. I have removed all 471 analytic scripts from our website. The reason, I believed that it could tell us extensively what the daily accumulated affairs on our website is. This proved to be not the case. I discovered, that the statistics were recently counting in reverse, and in no way in accordance to other statistics. I therefore opted for re-establishing the former situation. Only three days of intensive work.
9 January 2015: We entered the year 2015. Our Foundation exists now for more than 20 years. My current occupation is mainly divided between the Magnetophon project and putting as much as possible BIOS and CIOS files on the web. The last two weeks I have been most engaged and a bulk of materials have been put on the website. The Google Analytics programme, which now linked onto our website since about 11 November 2014, links today 466 web pages. Viewed on 15.51 CET today, it shows that 21,768 pages have been viewed. An average of, say, 10,000 a month. Quite visitors staid even for 20 minutes and more. The passed year 2014, have been kept without special exhibition events, as to prevent that people will becoming bored. In the meantime special attention was dedicated to bringing the Magnetophon now really in a working order. Which was commenced, although, new developments may commence soon. Also very significant - was that the Nachtfee principles have been formulated in a way that with some commitment it becomes understandable. On Sunday 21 December a group from Eindhoven gathered in our museum and after my PowerPoint presentation and technical demonstration at least those may have understood Nachtfee's basic theory. For this year we plan the ICUE 2015 Workshop, which should discuss the dilemma of possessing an unique artefact of which nowhere in the world is known its (fundamental) principle. What should be done? Putting it on a shelf for the next generation, or is active investigation the right way of approaching? Of course, always keeping up some museum standards. You know, we opted for the latter option. Though, it is worth discussing the aspects concerned.
16 December 2014: In the meantime quite some happened, the Brainstorming session might take place on Sunday 21 December 2014. I had the opportunity to join a marvellous event organised by Robert Langenhuysen on 13 December in Bosch en Duin. I was invited to give a talk on the Nachtfee brainstorming reflections. This was a good opportunity to exercise and also experiencing where to emphasise upon especially for the next week session. The next day an idea emerged why not replacing experimentally the Nachtfee time base signal by a Rb-controlled device? Robert is planning to obtain a second batch of Rb-standard modules. We opt for three. One in conjunction to the Nachtfee console - the second one replacing temporarily the PM 5193 synthesizer - number three for additional purpose. My idea is, dividing the 10 MHz signal down to 500 Hz and using this as to replace the Nachtfee internal time-reference. The always running EGON signal can then be interchanged and becoming 506 Hz. I guess that it even might be possible to inject a signal about the output line of the - quartz and 1/15 divider stage; thus where a signal stands of 1000 Hz. In this case we have to divide the 10,000 kHz sine-wave output of the Rb-controlled module till we get 1000 Hz (10,000 times). Or, dividing this value by an additional factor of 2. We might also distinguish what the behaviour of the 'regenerative divider stages' are. Similarly could be done with the simulated aircraft system. I understood, that dividing the Rb-signal improves the stability in the 'domain of time'. I presume, that we can run it for quite some time, before a spot-vector rotation (deviation) will become noticeable. The true-frequency of a Rb-reference is not really mattering, as long as the deviation is less than a single cycle. Alignment can then be managed by means of the Nachtfee controls; as these are in the signal chain anyway!
26 November 2014: Quite some work has been accomplished. The Telefunken Magnetophon T 8, has started to operate in full extension. Also the Neumann-Kondensator-Flaschen do operate again. Therefore, I adapted my old amplifier interfaces, previously used in conjunction to my HAM station. Cabling of the Magnetophon have been rearranged. We might obtain a quite rare apparatus, which isn't German gear, but it is an US radar apparatus of wartime days. The Germans removed it from a crashed US bomber aircraft, somewhere in 1943, near the small village of Meddo just near to the Dutch/German border (German Meddo-Bericht). German practice was to adapt code-names from places where a device was once captured for the first time. Such as: Rotterdam - Wiesbaden - Roosendal (Halbe) and Meddo. I therefore have decided to obtain this system. We can bring now both something of the Rotterdam (transmitter) apparatus as well as Meddo (PPI incorporating the RX and other means) apparatus on display. We also possess the Berlin SG 224 PPI unit, which technique principally was based upon the British Rotterdam apparatus; although, using German components and a different CRT technique. Contacts have also been laid between us and a Bunker party (Atlantic wall defence group). Likely some devices will be given on loan to them. However, were should we put it on display? I guess, that we have to move the not very much looked at shelf showing AS3-FuG16 EP (Y-Peiler receiver) and the Einflugzeichen TX. Putting them a the shelf were the were displayed before. We will move the Radio setup from it place towards the cleared shelf. The Meddo (AN/APS15a) apparatus shown where previously the Radio R3 and RS20M stood. The advantage is, that the Meddo antenna scanner can be put on top of the Rudolf DMG3a unit.
14 October 2014: The DEHS AS 14 meeting, held on 7 October this year, was a success. Phil Judkins and I gave our - two hours lasting - dual presentation on Fatal Communications during World War One. Digesting all the many efforts put into it, it was worth it, as it enriches our understanding of history and its multi implications. I was secondly honoured with a Nachtfee restoration award. I am personally very pleased with this honour. However, it was appreciated in England, and not in Germany. Eventually, someone appreciated our intriguing survey efforts. I also have announced that we are planning for an 'Interpreting & Conserving Unique Electronics' ICUE Workshop. In our understanding, it is worth discussing the 'pro and cons' of approaching unique, but not (fully) understood, technical artefacts.
4 September 2014: Digesting the pro and cons of a successful 'Workshop' on Nachtfee, it, after all, appeared to me, that this hardly will gain (attract) enough interest for a two-day lasting meeting. I therefore would like to extend the Workshop objectives to: The implications of investigating entirely unknown historical apparatus and/or technology, from the conservation (preservations) and technical perspectives, in regard to the necessity of unravelling lost, or never have been available, technology secrets. In particular to the circumstance, that someone possesses the only known sample; or, unique artefact. We have successfully deduced the entire technology on which Nachtfee is relying (≈ 95 per cent). Without bringing it to operate, its secrets would never have been enfolded (revealed); nowhere ever! I personally believe, that most museums (musea) are lacking the technical expertise to investigate in depth comparable technical problems (incorporating multi-disciplines). Conservators (curators) may be well educated, but they very most likely lack the understanding of what specific technical merits is about. Even if they would possess the possibility (skill), from the financial point of view it would be out of the scope of an organisation dedicating unlimited time onto a single technical artefact. I admit, that this, likely, never have been the objective (scope) of their education. However, following Nachtfee again, without operating it in a more or less genuine context, it would not have been possible to determine what its technical implications are about. One may take the (valid) position, that unique artefacts should be left as it has been obtained and add (implemented) to a collection, unless deterioration is forcing action. Doubtless, this latter stand would never have brought to bear what we have discovered in the rather comprehensive and long course of investigations (> two years). It is evident, that the entire process should be well documented, and also care should be taken to prevent irreversible damage; in our case, this have been well documented with > 30 dedicated Nachtfee web-pages. What to do with, for example, defect transformers, or capacitors and that like? Where possible, I have bridged defect or unreliable components, disconnecting them at a single side only (not valid for the defect transformers). By this means, it is possible to restore the genuine, but none functional, situation again. Nachtfee, however, is only one of the many occasions in which technology should be investigated on its merits. It is therefore worth to discuss these problems in a broader context. Where can this better be accomplished than in a technical museum environment? For this occasion, we can provide room for, say, 25 attendees. There are no charges, including lunches and refreshments. The rear exhibition room can be easily converted into a lecture room, with all necessary facilities. A hotel is quite nearby at, say, 15 à 20 minutes easy walk. Dates are not yet decided upon, and will be announced in due course. We are focussing on spring 2015, but this may, after due consideration, change.
1_September 2014: The summer time is more or less over, and new endeavours are waiting. I spent two months with reading on World War One related references (5 à 6 hours a day). The more I engaged myself, the more intriguing it became. Our (Phil Judkins and myself) commitments are focussing on aspects of: Fatal Communications during World Ware One. The more you know about the key moments of those days, the more Fatal were Communications. Not always by means of we are used to today, but also concerning failing mutual understanding, which is also a form of communication, often with a fatal outcome. Within two months, I have read a pile of 70 cm! The quantity of knowledge is so dazzling, that digesting necessitate a quite long time. Not only the facts are important, but also the mutual implications need to be implied in the overall picture. You may ask me - is this necessary? YES indeed, it is! When someone is dealing with a, say, 20 year time-span, you need to have a broad understanding of the concerned period. Some aspects are even today existent. For example, the Peace Negotiations at Brest-Litovsk - where Russia, and some newly independent republics, were seeking for Peace with Germany. Take 10 February 1918: ... Trotsky is furiously opposing the Ukrainian delegation of the Rada of Kiev, their capital then and today again. Trotsky came up with two men, what he designated - of the real parliament of Ukrainian ... they came from Kharkov! This is today the same troublesome region; indeed, it is! You can recognize, that history has an upper layer and a very long lasting under-layer; now ninety-six years have passed since and still comparable troubles are existent. Take another facet, the Battle of Jutland, or as the Germans called it Skagerrak. Not often mentioned, Admiral Scheer encountered the British Grand Fleet, a fact which he didn't knew then, was that he was to face the entire British Grand Fleet. However, quoting from Churchill's magnificent three volumes of: The Great War (1563 pages). From his first encounter with Admiral Beatty's Battle Fleet, Beatty lost within 38 minutes 3 of his best battleships! Lost meant exploded with instant loss, some sunk within minutes. On the other hand, the Russian-German encountering - in August 1914 (Tannenberg) and 1915 and 1916. What I never have realised before, was that the, what we call Poland roughly today, then did not exist! The Vienna Congress of 1815, regulating the central European turmoil after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, decided that this territory should be ruled by Russia. This was the situation still when WW I started. The Russian border was thus not yet two hundred kilometres from Berlin. After the Russian defeat at Tannenberg and clearing off Rennenkampf's forces, Russians were defeated, but still stood at some places on German soil. Before the Russian front line could be pushed eastwards, the what now is Poland had to be gained first, which, by the way, wasn't an easy undertaken. However, this also was managed. It sounds all simple, but it was not, because the main German military engagements were committed in France (Western Front). The Eastern Front was stripped (for most of the time) from its artillery and reserve forces. In due course, Deo volente, you will find our monograph somewhere on this website. What was a special experience, was reading the wartime diaries of leading men. Like General Max Hoffmann's, or von Tirpitz's. It is very intriguing reading about someone's daily thoughts. Like the fact of Trotsky's appearance at Brest-Litovsk on 10 February 1918. You may still ask me, where is the link to communications? There hardly will be one without this aspect of being 'fatal and communications'. One of our new endeavours is Nachtfee (again). We would like to initiate a workshop on Nachtfee, of say, lasting two days; the following (next) weekend we could be open to the public and giving a talk and demonstrations. The main newly arranged exhibition can be, of course, also visited. The workshop could be set for a combined Friday and Saturday, somewhere in March or April 2015. We would like to make a dynamic Marquette or an animation film, where the complicated aircraft movements versus the ground Freya-EGON-Nachtfee- and aircraft responding signals can be visualised in the domains of time. Every time one is trying to oversee all the various implications - new facets are, virtually, entering the arena. But, making a film strip where all these aspects become visible and understandable, also for layman, will constitute a good starting point. In July I extended the Nachtfee webpage with a call for assistance. Our concern is: we have found some brief information on Nachtfee though, none of a real technical nature. We are offering to the one who 'comes forward' with the missing key information, that he shall be, of course, acknowledged extensively, and he shall also be invited to visit us on our expenses! About six weeks have been passed since, but no sign of engagement have been received yet. We strongly believe, that somewhere in the United States there must be some remains of a technical investigation report, or genuine papers, on the Nachtfee (FuG 136) apparatus or system. However, we have to accept that the current 'culture' differs from the past a bit, and that commitments, where an outcome is uncertain, might constitute a too big hurdle.
12 July 2014: Closing my reading of Dan van der Vat's, The Ship That Changed The World, The escape of the Goeben to the Dardanelles in 1914, published by Hodder and Stoughton, in 1985, I strongly believe that two really striking conclusions we should bear in mind: page 218 ... (meaning Churchill, AOB) But his mistake, shared with so many others, was not to appreciate the importance of Turkey (what it actually wasn't named yet, AOB) before the war (meant 1914, AOB) , an error the Germans avoided and turned to terrible account. The Ottoman Empire was worth more than two dreadnoughts after all, and redrawing of the political map in the Middle East after its postwar collapse had consequences which have still not by any means worked themselves out to this day. Further quoting from page 239: ... Thus the advent of the Goeben eventually forced a cure upon the "sick man of Europe"; but the amputation which came with it and the continuing wrangles over this abandoned estate have already had consequences which we would have done better without. As we nervously follow events in the Middle East today , we cannot exclude the possibility that worse has yet to come. Amen. This text was written down before 1985. How true he is. In my perception - Churchill doubtless a great and most important figure, but his unwise decision not handing over to the Ottoman Empire the two dreadnoughts already paid for, caused an impact where the world is even today suffering from. The Goeben and Breslau sailed in the Mediterranean waters from late 1913 onwards; when they arrived in that theatre, from the German perspective, there was not yet a great danger of war. About 2nd August 1914, Goeben received a wireless telegram that they have to head for what we call Turkey. There was agreed upon a 'secret treaty' between the German- and Ottoman Empire. But, nothing was settled yet politically. When both Goeben and Breslau entered the Ottoman Territorial waters (the Dardanelles) nothing was fully agreed upon. In my perception most likely, would have got the Ottoman Empire their paid for two dreadnoughts, the Goeben might have been hiding in Turkish waters, but the Ottoman Empire might have stayed neutral as it by then was. On the other hand, history is always taking its course as it does, whether we like it or not. We might not live today in a peaceful Europe for such a long time; but on the other hand, we are being confronted with very dangerous spheres in the Middle East. Which appalling state of affairs can have highly dangerous implications to our future! By the way, by digesting this book it becomes clear that the British naval response in 1914 and 1915 is a great example of 'Fatal Communication'. For understanding was it implies, I would like to advice you catch a copy, for example, via Abebooks; whether by www.Abebooks.de or www.Abebooks.com is up to your choice. Maybe some lines of my (modified) reflection of July 3rd is worth being noticed again.
3 July 2014: It has been a rather busy time since my last update of engagements. Just before leaving for a trip to Germany we got a phone call from a sun of late Bob Grevenstuk; that he sadly has passed away. It culminated in a donation to our archive of 5 photo albums, which for some time has been with us already. Resulting in a copy of the Prize Winning album of early 1939 by Klaas Dijkstra. Between say late May and the end of June the four other albums have been digitalized and been put onto our website (Dutch Indies PTT and Bouw Radio Malabar). Time has to be dedicated onto a mutual project together with Phil Judkins on 'Fatal Communications During World Ware One'. A huge task. However, the more one is digging himself into it, the more interesting it becomes. Since Christopher Clark's recent study, we know that the origin, or at least many aspects, of WW I is to find far in the past, in my perception even into the 17th century and beyond. Even the tremendous dangerous situation in the current Middle East finding its origin in political faulty decisions taken during and shortly after WW I. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire, might have been successful for the victors of WW I; but the late consequences we are facing today still. Communications is not limited to what we today understand being 'Communications' but what it originally means: connecting and information exchange (roads, canals and bridges are also means of communications). Another example: a conference is also relying on communications. However, such an endeavour is demanding many references. On my side, I have culminated 113 refs, of which some count > 1400 pages. Among it first hand diaries of those heavily engaged, like Tirpitz (1921), General Max Hoffmann (1928), Winston Churchill (late 1920s). Clear becomes a crucial aspect, and that is 'wartime propaganda', is still distorting the public knowledge and understanding of those days. Giving you a minor example, out of quite many: The Audacious, the most modern Royal Navy war ship did sink on 27 October 1914 just off the coast of Northern Ireland hit by a German mine. This event was kept secret until 28 November 1918, as Churchill described it: for obvious reason!
10 Aril 2014: Time these months is scare, as I am heavily engaged to a future project, together with Phil Judkins, concerning: Crusial Communications during World War One. Maybe Crusial should be converted into Fatal, which the various dramatic communications actually were. Please don't forget, that communications has a far wider implication than wireless information exchange. Being in this era one quickly forget these implications. It took roughly a 50 years since 1918 - before the lessons learned were implemented in western European countries. Even the events in the Balkans of the 1990s can be traced back to the causes of WW1. For it one need references of all kinds and a pile of books and papers-copies has to be gathered first, and - digested. In the meantime a rather time consuming project was undertaken, copying the rare but beautiful publication: 25 Jahre Telefunken. Commemorating that Telefunken existed 25 years in 1928. Viewing it can by no means reflecting the difficulties encountered. The striking nuisance - most book pages, like most books do have, pages are not bound properly and the text is not 'standing right up' entirely. Reading it you might not even notice it, but copying it is showing this phenomenon quasi more 'amplified'. Managing more than 50 pages a day was impossible! 25 Jahre Telefunken Of course, preventing me from making too many mistakes, which sometimes necessitated complicated corrections! It finally commenced say 325 pages though, I copied easily more than 500 pages!
22 February 2014: Some time have passed since the last update in January. I have dedicated some time for counting first how many separated webpages do we actually operate? I counted 643 pages. During my counting I came across quite some adobe extensions (pdf) why not counting these too? I together counted 1505, using: 1.27816 GB. The numbers of files do not reflect the enormous effort put in to it. Some consisted of hundred of pages some of only a few. But, the counting tells us that the average content is: 84.927 kB. For your convenience we operate a total number of 15164 hyperlinks. However, I also decided to stop temporarily with bringing the Siemens G-Schreiber T52d operationally again. I encountered too many problems. We possess a second machine which currently is still in the U.K. But this device should return to us in due course. My effort then is to starting up the experiments again with the second machine. Which operated fully before it was brought to England for a long term loan in 1994. I would also like to dedicate some time for investigating the problems encountered with the T43a polarity-relay. In the meantime dedicating attention to arrange a sound G-Schreiber corner again. Also, gaining momentum in the Magnetophon project.
19 January 2014: On January 4th Paul and Marc carried most of their artefacts away and quite some empty space was left. Paul suggested that it makes sense changing the place of a higher display table. It bore in my mind that a change might change the entire vision when visitors entre the main exhibition hall. Instead of having a telephone corner in front, its display was moved to the right-hand side of the centre table. The new space is being filled up with a variety of small navy communication sets. Like Ha5K36, Ha15K42 and the Lo1UK35. The first and the latter being fed from original power supplies. A second new idea popped up in my mind, why not showing the Hütte II DF system (Peiler) with two of the original Adcock antenna masts. Of course, four have to be used, but I only obtained in the late 1970s two of them. A third thought came up, why not displaying the Lo40K39 station in their original transport suitcases? Also kept for decades in store and never been on display before. The two Adcock mast being fit onto the display tables in a way, that these can be removed without direct visible evidence. The left-hand long table is reshuffled and the exhibits display newly. In the rear room, the two moveable tables being dedicated especially to Gyro related artefacts, like the V-1 steering and the Patin KZ 14. Though, also the K-12 which was an adapted version used for steering the Seehund miniature two men submarine (type 127). At the far end of the second table the Zeitdrucker 38 (ZD 38) being displayed. All allowing that the artefacts can be approached from three sides. In the same rear hall a corner is showing interesting artefacts like: AS 3 and EZS1 both 'Blind-landing' systems. Also, the receiver and power supply to the Peiler Heinrich (NAPH and E16EP) are put on display. In the main hall adjacent to the FuG10 corner some 'blind-landing' (FuBl 1) gear and test sets being shown. On Saturday 18th our annual board meeting was held (Jaarvergadering), covering the year 2013. The extremely busy months October - November and December did not allow a annual board meeting. This had been the case some other years too. The board members Paul and Marc both were heavily engaged in those month as well; as they were the nucleus of the Exhibition on Secret Communications. In the rear exhibition hall the movable tables being ready for displays again. Especial care was taken to keep enough space around the tables so that visitors can walk around them viewing the exhibits from various perspectives conveniently.
2 January 2014: Considering the last year visitor numbers, we need to bear in mind that what was accomplished was only possible because - first, we did not have had open days in 2012, as we did in 2011. Secondly, maybe more important, the unique occasion hosting the Secret Communications event. We should therefore focus not on a new exhibition - but on fulfilling necessary work to be dedicated to cleaning the various spaces and also reshuffling the workshops. My last two weeks of 2013 have been dedicated mainly to clearing the huge backlog and entering the many files in our dBase system. This have been accomplished in the meantime. Maybe with the help of our new volunteer Wouter, we should start with finishing the work in the Klooster premises. Next, the MLK space should be cleaned and reshuffled a bit.
2 January 2014: Reflecting on the previous year 2013, we may consider it being the most successful year we ever encountered. In April we have had an open day to the public which was well attended (52 guests). However, the Secret Communications exhibition held on 16 - 23 - 30 November followed by an extra Sunday 15 December even we just welcomed 400 visitors. Adding to it the guests in April and the groups who visited us additionally we may looking back for roughly 500 visitors. Counting all visitors we have had 24067 website visitors. The final day to the public (15 December) we welcomed honourable Mr Schoemaker, who talked vividly about his Gladio career (1960-1992), being a trainer for wireless agents operators. Luckily, this is recorded on video and can be viewed on Youtube. During the event we also hosted members of the IEHG and DEHS from the UK. They arrived on the 21 November and we joined a closed meeting on Friday 22nd, where we could dig deeper into Nachtfee. Starting with a PowerPoint presentation followed by demonstrations. Proceeded by the open event on Saturday 23rd.
Year 2013 ↓
9 November 2013: The exhibition on Secret Communications was open for the first time, albeit, not yet to the general public. The occasion was the closed Hell Group meeting which takes place since 1978 annually. We have scheduled for the general public the data: 16 - 23 and 30 November 2013. When there is enough public interest we can be open on one or two Sundays in December 2013.
10 September: We have started with implementing so called flags, which enables you to jump directly from our Type-number-Wizard index onto the particular artefact where one is looking for. It was already for some time found that searching for particular devices in a huge page is rather clumsy. I have therefore implemented direct links which are being added to a file like: xxxx.htm#26. Today I have started with our Exhibits-details-1 page; which contains 39 flags. Making errors is quite likely, I therefore decided to continue this endeavour in a couple of days, as accuracy is what counts.
3 September: The summer break has ended and with new energy my summer new thoughts is demanding the conversion of ideas into a practical experiment; for it I have to build an experimental electronic circuit based on my holiday hypothetical concept. As for me usually, the circuit was built and the result was not very convincing in the beginning. I must have been tiered, because without changing anything the next morning after proper circuit alignment and some considerations during the night it worked instantly well. The next step is adapting similar BNC connectors so that we can easily interchange between both the transistorised- and the valve controlled interfaces. I was really delighted that my concept obeys like a logical circuit even in a dc manner.
14 July: A current point of reflection: - what will happen when the ‘core’ of our Foundation is no longer capable of keeping up the momentum of our presence? In The Netherlands, therefore exists a ‘legal entity’ which is known as: ANBI (Algemeen Nut Beogende Instelling). It may be translated in: an entity being beneficial to the community (legally not necessarily focussing at The Netherlands, but, for example, taking care of social projects in the third world is also a valid occupation). In legal terms - donations (legaat = legacy) is then being freed of inheritance taxation. Of course, there exist some restrictions, one is: that the donation should be limited in respect to the expected annual expenses (The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has far less limitations, compared to a relatively small ANBI entity). À propos, all expenses should be spent for at least 90 percent onto the annual operations (core aims). On the other hand, it is still possible to donate a considerable endowment to an ANBI institution, but already before a donation becomes effective, there should be established (described testamentary) 'an entity in between', the granting (legaat) or donation and the beneficiary ANBI institution. One of the reasons is: to separate the running ANBI finances from the benefits of the donated capital (there should not exist a direct link between the ANBI organisation and the entity that takes care of the fruit-bringing assets). We have thus to think - that the fruit-bringing endowment is granting annually just enough to the ANBI entity that it can continue its annual operations in the long term. Here we envisage a bottleneck, at least someone - or a group, should taking care of our future (Foundation) operations. Even, being it occasionally, as long as the ANBI status still is obeying the law (being accepted legally). Bearing this in mind - is this truly makeable (realistic)? I have some concern about it. It is a matter of fact - that most collectors generally have one thing in common: egoism pur sang! It is hardly thinkable that with such attitude the continuity of our aims will sustain. On the other hand - I strongly believe in James Bond's statement: Never say Never again! Would amalgamating with another ANBI entity bringing the solution, or, eventually, merging before the ANBI status is being granted - and then applying for it afterwards? Currently, we have two quite young and very enthusiastic board members; hence, there still is hope! What also will contribute - is the existence of our comprehensive website; which reflects what we are doing and what is in the possession of our Foundation. Considering, however, what is just being dealt with - our about nine years of web experience is telling us one matter very profoundly: - when a website becomes static - it looses its attraction. In other words – attraction might be a virtual expression, but when sparkling is fading the regular visitors will, logically, turn their attention away. Even when the webmaster is on vacation, the visiting numbers plunge sometimes deeply! As to keep up momentum without following regular paths, we are planning for an exceptional - maybe unique Autumn project: Secret Communications. This time not relying on what we have 'in house' but an exhibition in cooperation with the Cryptomuseum.com in The Netherlands. For it, we will empty quite some regular exhibition space, making room for a unique event in November this year. We schedule three Saturdays: 16 - 23 and 30 November (when there is ample demand an additional Saturday will be devoted, for which date is not decided yet). Albeit, some of our artefacts will be brought on display as well in combination with two different Enigma configurations; also our Geheimschreiber T52d (SFM T52d) will be part of the exhibition. The time-span covered will be between 1921 up to the mysterious Gladio era ending in the 1990s (2000s?). Not widely known, this was a pan-European secret force - meant for the circumstance the Russians would have occupied Western-Europe. Even Switzerland joined this project! After the changes in Eastern-Europe (1989-1991) this organisation was eventually being made redundant. A teaser: KL-7! KL-51/RACE its successor; Hagelin TC-52, Gretag TC-53, RACAL PRM-4150 (not entirely complete, but 'unique' with its fixed-ground station). Two operational Russian Fialka machines will communicate against one another. The Swedish Hagelin type B-21 (1921), also a superb Hell H-54 machine - Hell's superior copy of the well known Hagelin cipher machine. Viewing the WW II era - a B 2 and its successor A 3 will be, Deo volente, displayed too. We will keep you informed with the progress of this intriguing undertaken.
4 June: Since recently, we eventually obtained the gyro platform of a V 1. It is an intriguing device, which full principles are not yet entirely understood. Owing to its rarity, we have decided to start a new project survey on to it (V 1 gyro platform). Most photos have been taken and we are now waiting for documentation. A German friend promised to send us a copy of a post war dissertation on the gyro system of the V 1. We also are considering initiating a new short lasting exhibition on: Secret Communications. The bulk of artefacts is not ours but is being provided on loan. We are, temporarily, focussing on two or three Saturdays in November this year. The first one might be restricted for special guest only, namely: The Annual Hellmeeting; which is most likely scheduled for 9 November 2013. The first day open for visitors will be then on 16 and 23, maybe 30 November 2013 as well. What is shown is hardly displayed elsewhere! For it, special space will be provided. Consequently, quite some artefacts will be put on store for the time being. Afterwards, this is giving us the opportunity to change the way some artefacts being displayed. It is always necessary to keep a museum display lively, and one should always get the impression that things are new. A good opportunity would be to change the way the Geheimschreiber corner is being set up. Maybe also the low power Navy wireless sets can be displayed more attractively. It is also hoped for, that the Magnetophon project can make progress. It is also discovered, that special attention should be dedicated as to restore the interactions between the Würzburg power meter (dummy load) and the Rehbock artificial target generator. What goes actually wrong is not yet understood. My presumption is that a new approach should be commenced in autumn time, as a summer holiday recovery is boosting my drive to go for it again. Heinz Blumberg promised to send us an electronic test set which is providing test text. Our Geheimschreiber project is being hampered by the fact that we can send a message from the Geheimschreiber towards the counter telex T68. Messages sent from the T68 towards the Geheimschreiber (dealing with clear text) is being received as complete nonsense. This failure introduced itself within a few hours, since we have no idea what, where and why it goes wrong! A problem is, that the G-Schreiber operates with dual-current, whereas the T68 uses single current. The so-called Fernschreibanschlußgerät (FAG) is the interface between both system modes. More success is encountered in conjunction with Naxos. We experimentally made from available scrap metal a kind of replica of a Puck test transmitter. The first device was fully made from recollection; I had seen it maybe for 30 years for the last time. A second sample is to be made, which is more in line with the genuine design. It nevertheless, works. Whether as good as a genuine set cannot be judged yet.
21 April: Yesterday our 'open day to the public' was quite a success. Likely helped the pre-notations in both the NVHR and SRS quarterly magazines. I saw people who I haven't seen for more than thirty years. Counting the signatures, we encountered 52 attendees. This might sound not too much, though, more might have caused congestions. I demonstrated the Nachtfee twice and fear that some have not seen what actually was visible on the various display screens. Naxos was being operated and demonstrated only once. It proved, however, that the new detector, which we very kindly got from Henk Peek, was now too sensitive. Consequently, the GR generator was mounted too near to the Naxos dielectric (polyrod) antenna. This should be improved in due course. The Würzburg was also demonstrated, as was explained Liechtenstein SN2 (FuG 220) radar. Some attendees arrived just after 10 o'clock in the morning and left not before we went after 6 o'clock homewards. My presentation was about Communications during The Desert War 1941-1943. I was luckily this time not bounded by a particular time slot and took all the time necessary (1½ hours). No one of the audience (say 30 men) left before my presentation was concluded. I also have to thank my wife Karin as well Dick Zijlmans and Esther for their great dedication making this 'a happy day' to all of us!
1 April: We have scheduled an open day for 20 April 2013. In the meantime we have worked on bringing the Siemens Geheimschreiber to operate again. Which proved to be a rather complicated task; as the receiving chain is causing problems. As to trace the course of it I have decided to go for it in very details. Consequently, I have to measure all wire connections, as far these might inflict proper operation. The SFM T52d is a very complicated machine, cabling having only single colour wires. These trunk-wires cannot be followed thus the schematic is the only means to rely upon! Since a few days I discovered that the Manual M. Dv. Nr. 35 does not cover all details. Heinz Blumberg very kindly supplied to me a schematic of a completely different nature, showing filters of which existence I never was aware of. However, its actual size is too big for its handling on the web. Also some work was accomplished on the Nachtfee project and PM5193V .
12 March: On 6 March together with Dick Zijlmans we left for Belgium, where a Studio System was to be obtained. A Belgium HAM donated most generously to us his historical Sound equipment. Consisting of a rare AEG K8 Studio Sound Recorder (1947). Including many interesting devices, like microphones as well as incorporating the originally used amplifier modules (V47/2 and V41). Viewing Dick's reactions I think this will become his project, as he has a penchant for 'Sound Recording and its Reproduction'. A new webpage called Magnetophon Project has been initiated. It is evident that such a quite bulky system needs an appropriate moveable table, which can facilitate the electronic modules and related devices. My guess, it might take long before this project ultimately comes to a conclusion.
25 February: In the meantime it was possible getting the G-Schreiber working again in the way as it did in the early 1990s reporting on the progress made by making our Geheimschreiber working again. This project will be an uphill struggle, as many parameters giving troubles. After many experiments it is found that at least four relay (Flachanker-Relais) of the original Fernschreibanschlußgerät G are defect; their bobbins (coils) are all in some respect interrupted. I never could have imagined that so complicated relay devises existed! Also YouTube films being part of this report. A special page dedicated to the manual of the G-Schreiber interface being setup as well. Dick Zijlmans being heavily involved. He is currently having contact to someone who is willing to support us with the rewinding of the defect relay bobbins (coils). This special interface was swopped about a decade ago, and is especially belonging to the Siemens Geheimschreiber types; it was therefore never tested.
15 February: Yesterday (14th), the VERON section Amsterdam visited our museum in the evening though, the weather played mad with black ice on the roads. It was all together a very lively and pleasant evening for me. We have had plenty of time dealing with the many implications of Nachtfee. A very difficult to explain system, where 'orders' should have been sent towards 'Pathfinder' aircrafts during wartime days; on the other hand a system that was relying on the 'domains of time'. For most people a very difficult to understand technique; as loop symmetry plays such an essential role. Since yesterday, a new series of Youtube films have been added onto the new G-Schreiber Rep. webpage. Exciting for me is viewing that the G-Schreiber, for the first time since about 1990, starts up running again. Dick Zijlmans is vividly playing its keyboard. However, still many problems have to be solved yet. Like: getting the G-Schreiber interface running again in all modes (4 wire to 2 wire v.v. etc.)
6 January: In the meantime we have started up a new survey namely G-Schreiber Rep. The aim is bringing our Geheimschreiber T52d into full function again. The first approach is getting the genuine G-Schreiber interface/power supply to operate again. The current problem is eliminating the deliberate act of sabotage; where a unit was pulled out the chassis resulting in a complete cutting-off its wiring. So far this do not look like as if this is a great deal. Next we plan to 'overhaul' the G-Schreiber mechanics, particularly in respect to its lubrication. Please notice, that this machine ran about 22 years ago for the last time. Nachtfee is slowly reaching its conclusion, as we sadly still lack genuine wartime technical documents (1943/44/45). Maybe a brainwave may bring us a step forwards, but at present I let it run and experiment a bit around with it.
On 21 January: 13 January a Hell QSO between PA 0 AOB and PA 3 FFZ is being photographed as well as video filmed on YouTube (PA 0 AOB on Hell mode) . The QSO took place on 80 metres. Also the background how it once all started in 1976. Also some photos of the Hell-group meeting of 1980 and the one of 2012 is shown. The entire HAM station operated is having an age of 70 years or more! On the other hand, a series of experiments on Nachtfee were commenced. This time investigating whether it is possible to 'gate' the TB pulses before these are being fed onto the common signal point of pin 9 (test connector). This work well. Integrated in the circuitry, is the provision to blank or kill the TB signal, so that it is not visible on the simulated aircraft display. For it the entire video-signal fed onto the Z-modulation channel of our oscilloscope is being blocked. However, enough pulses remaining as to allow measurements on both the simulated aircraft display as well as on the LB2 control-screen in the Nachtfee console. Things-done-2 With our current state of knowledge fast Nachtfee progress is not very much likely, as what we desperately need for is genuine technical papers of 1944/45. Of course not those of Felkin, which latter are of non technical nature and often being apparently incorrect. The only progress possible is to add some 'bits and pieces'. However, the next project may be restoring, better call it: bringing the Siemens T52d G-Schreiber to function again. The mechanic of the apparatus needed in their days of service (overhaul) every three months, whereas ours has not been operated for more than 21/22 years. Some years ago I got from Günter Hütter a special G-Schreib-Anschlussgerät, similar to the regular Springschreibanschlussgerät. Be it, that the connecting plug is especially fit for the Siemens systems. I was told, that the internal wiring is missing or what ever, and we must find a way bringing it to function again. Those familiar with the complexity of Siemens Telex interfaces (4-wire-systems) may understand the problems we likely will encounter. Telling all this, Nachtfee might slowly still making some further progress, but not with the speed as it previously did.
Year 2013 ↑
Year 2012 ↓
On 25/26 December a new approach on Nachtfee is accomplished, in which I investigated whether it is possible to reduce the number of TB pulses conveyed towards the Nachtfee console. This works fine, as was expected. One of the aims, is to eliminate the existing TB-spot at the simulated aircraft display. Please remember the Nachtfee data is derived from test connector pin 9, but the same pin is also used for injecting the TB reference signal onto the transponder signal. It is thus understandable that the TB pulse is appearing at the CRT screen. It is successfully blanked (killed) for the sequence when it is being transmitted. I also upgraded the data about our website, like its total content (Bladwijzer201). It is also decided to introduce a new webpage, which actually is a division of the existing Nachtfee things to be done 1. Its content is so heavily loading the downloading of web-transfer that from 22 (Bladwijzer202) onwards the webpage Nachtfee things done 2 is coming in force.
On 11 December we contributed a new webpage dedicated to SIGESO files. British reports on Scientific work done in Germany. Aspect is being dealt with hardly reflected in post war literature of the Anglo-Saxon world. The recent past few days also reflected the new contact we have with Marcel van Heijkop. Who is planning for a book on KG.66 more than a decade. Marcel desperately would like to publish is collected materials but his job is in Amsterdam whereas he every working day has to travel about 4 ½ hours. Leaving him virtually no time for finishing the work. He started more than a decade ago and has had contact to several KG.66 crew members. All have been passed away in the meantime. He told me per e-mail, that when he looks into his already gather materials he time and again is astonished over the quantity and its variety of what is gathered! The Nachtfee projects, however, has reached its quasi zenith; although, my 'Credo' is: Never say never again, quoting James Bond! Progress most likely is only makeable when new information can be found.
On 1 December and following, we have set the date for a public event on 20 April 2013. More significant to me, is the finding on Wilipedia about Operation Steinbock which just is event for which Nachtfee particularly was designed for. The German version http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unternehmen_Steinbock states that: dass die Luftwaffe aufgrund eines nicht fehlerfreien Funknavigationsverfahrens die Angriffsziele nicht sicher fand. This statement just points into the direction that Nachtfee operationally failed to accomplish where it was meant for. Whether the main reason was that both time-base-references failed to be stable enough I have not yet found. Maybe a combination of time-base stability and radio interference is also possible. Albeit, training may also have been a hampering aspect. The English text version does not mention this aspect clearly. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Steinbockteinbock Due to this new discovery I have created a new webpage dedicated to the query: Was Nachtfee a failing system?
In the last week of November 2012 I was able for the first time to describe how Nachtfee really works. Especially in respect as to how the signals on the LB2 control CRT screen should be interpreted. It is astonishing how aspects of the domain of time can be controlled from what is shown on it. Like the correct adjustment of 'Range' off-set, as well as the system off-set of the aircraft TB phase reference. As to explain it to a broader public, I also made a PowerPoint version, which for simplicity is converted into PDF (Explaining its principle a bit differently). Also a webpage especially dedicated to Nachtfee in the domain of time. However, also the main page things done is extended with section 20. Time and again I wonder that still new discoveries can be made. It is nevertheless foreseeable that the Nachtfee survey project will slow down a bit. Looking back what have been achieved over just a single year, this may be regarded unbelieveable! My experience is, that time is sometimes necessary to digest a problem or query and that when time is right (Deo volente) that after a brainwave is understood how things actually work.
In October/November 2012 I have worked through a range of Nachtfee queries and accompanied experiments. However, on 13/15/16 November a real beak-through occurred. Like in a brainwave, I understood how the existing Nachtfee controls should interact with what is displayed on the LB2 'Control Tube' as well as on the 'Range Adjustment Tube'. It is by simply considering that Nachtfee is having a (kind of) symmetry between both the upward and downward range (distance), and that electrical delays can be considered being virtually 'Range off-set'. Taking also into account the illustration originating from Radar News 19, my assumptions in 18 - 18a/b (Bladwijzer187) are fully in accordance with this post war publication (1945). Albeit, that still the matter as to how the 'airborne time-base-reference' signal was being handled remains open. There hardly can be a doubt that in some way or another this most important system parameter had to be controlled (manipulated) from the Nachtfee (LB2) 'control tube' screen, by means of the 'Phase control' on the Nachtfee front panel.
In September 2012 I have started with accomplishing matters discussed in my webpage: Things to be done which culminated in a new webpage Things done My first and major concern so far is displaying the simulated Nachtfee system in a logical order, however, operational; this culminated in a split set-up. Since 26 September I have started creating a series of (so far 15) YuoTube video films of what is shown on the various Nachtfee CRT screens under various conditions (parameters). We plan to commence Nachtfee quartz measurements, as to determine their R1 and the Q-factor parameters of the ten Nachtfee quartz (about 15,000 Hz) (Bladwijzer170). We have, before this can be started up, first to make an adapter which fit into the slots of the quartz modules. Owing to other engagements, I have to delay this undertaken and would like to begin with it after, say, mid of October. Most measurements, as a consequence of the considerations discussed in 'things to be done', have been realised as well, and its outcome was, that it is not favourable to inject the simulated aircraft time-base-pulses before the recognition switch (BG25a) (Bladwijzer181). The following circuit (Rö5) is sharpening the pulses too much for our purpose. I consequently returned back to injecting the simulated aircraft time-base-pulse reference at grid of Rö8 again. Due to the lack of genuine wartime technical documentation all we actually do is highly hypothetical though, it is the only means possible trying out, time and again, all imaginable configurations. Keeping control of synchronism between both the Nachtfee as well as the simulated aircraft time base reference proved being most cumbersome. It takes about two hours before, still for a relatively short while, quasi synchronism occurs. Noticing the 1944 wartime operational conditions - where power lines easily were interrupted and shortages of fuel; it is likely that the power supply of Freya-EGON combined with Nachtfee suffered also from power failures. This would destroy quasi synchronism between Freya-EGON/Nachtfee and an aircraft system totally. Whether this was one of the reasons why the Nachtfee principle wasn't picked up by the Russians in post war days I can not say, though not unlikely. I have shown some of the drawbacks in the series of YouTube films.
In July 2012 several projects were undertaken. First I initiated a Nachtfee Chronology, staring from 1943 up to recent days. 99 % of what we know, be it from gathering bits and pieces together, or reflecting all the steps which have be done since we got the Nachtfee on 12 November 2011. It has become a rather large page, which is using flags (Bladwijzer) as to jump to an according passage of a webpage. Thus you jump instantly to the correct lines dealt with. I also setup an additional webpage dedicated to nearby future measurements and that like. My first aim, Deo volente, in September is, measuring the quartz parameter R1; being it loss resistance. Here fore measuring the series resonance of a quartz device exactly (within 0.001 Hz).
I have started on 9 June 2012 a new page contribution called: Hypothetical thoughts. It started as an additional page, giving improved technical information on the principles of Nachtfee. It grew, however, into a different kind of summary. Maybe also as the result of irritation or frustration; that some are opposing strongly my views. Which is, by the way, their democratic right. But when you still present a lecture including a paper on Nachtfee (using materials from my website), and refusing to take notice of progress in this project, is rather annoying. As a result of these irritations, my explications went deeper than was intended when I started with this page. It though, gives me also a welcome opportunity to explain in very detail how the system and their interactions work. Every time when I upgrade this page, I trust that its ultimate completeness is reached. The next morning, however, new thoughts come up maturing in adding new considerations again. This page is truly becoming the page to explain the Nachtfee system, as well as our hypothetical reconstruction. This experimental concept is only created as to get an idea how the various system parameters interact. Some may not agree with my perceptions, but refuse taking actually part in the running experiments. Frustrating is, that there exists a so-called 'Phase' control on the Nachtfee front panel, having no scale whatsoever. It is influencing, nevertheless, the time domain of the Nachtfee signal against a second free running clock, like in the aircraft display. They persistently reject to take this existing fact in their system understanding. But the entire Nachtfee concept has to rely on this system parameter! Is this problem a matter of age? My advice, come over and join the experiments, I can assure you, it is truly thrilling. Not good? Money back! I would say.
On 30 May we returned from the trip to Douvres in the Normandy, whereto we have transported our Liechtenstein SN2. It will be, Deo volente, on display in the Douvres Radar Museum. A historical site, which was quite important before and during the early days of the Allied invasion after 6 June 1944. It was resisted fiercely by the Germans. The site housed a Wassermann, two Freya and a Giant Würzburg (FuSE 65). They have a Giant Würzburg on display, which is visible from quite a distance. The Normandy area is very impressing, especially when we are aware of the enormous sufferings during these days. The German resistance was rather effective and it took the Allies > 75 days before they good break through there lines. Paris was liberated on 25 August, an astonishing long time after the Allied Invasion on 6 June 1945. This struggle may have had a very long term impact and that is that we can live now in a peaceful Europe; where a war between western nations is unthinkable!
We spend about two weeks in Germany, starting with a meeting in Dresden, where I could show the audience what Nachtfee is about. A bit disappointing was, that Hans Jucker opposed my perception strongly. And for this I confronted myself with the implications of Hans Jucker's points of view. (Nachtfee versus Hans Jucker). Before arriving in Dresden I visited Rudolf Startiz in Bamberg, the Old Man is 90 years and is still extremely keen and alert. It was a great pleasure having our very vivid conversations, as we know each other for about 35 years. In the meantime, Nachtfee is progressing well and the rewound filament transformer has been remounted successfully (Thanks to Dick Zijlmans). The Nachtfee project is slowly reaching a point where we can thinking of how we can optimally put the entire system on display. Letting it functioning in combination with FuG25a and the Gemse receiver surrounding the Nachtfee set-up. I also continued with putting parts of the Werkstattbuch on the web. I guess, that 3/4 have been commenced and, Deo volente, the rest will follow soon. Next Tuesday (15th) Phil Judkins is arriving again for the mutual preparations of our Autumn DEHS project for a three days stay.
In the beginning of April 2012, we obtained a bunch of documents from England. Among it was a collection of most rare files, namely the so-called Werkstattbuch for the various Würzburg systems. This collection is highly technical and were meant for technical staff concerned with Würzburg repair but also for the many system upgrades. It both explains briefly and some going into details of Würzburg derivates. As it contains a wide series of documents I have decided to add the sheets peu à peu. Some have to wait for special care, as these are sized A3 some even A1. These have to be brought to a special shop which can convert its content directly into pdf format, rather than reducing its content to an A4 document. Also our Nachtfee Survey has reached a new state, where it have been possible to simulated (hypothetically) the entire Nachtfee system loop (Bladwijzer21). Transmitting Nachtfee data by means of very short HF pulses towards the FuG25a aircraft transponder displaying the Nachtfee 'order' at the circular time base line of the simulated aircraft display. Returning the display time-base-phase-pulses by HF means and sending them via the FuG25a IFF transmitter towards the Gemse receiver. Bridging distances of 1 - 2 m. The Gemse receiver output (video) is then fed onto the Nachtfee feedback input and is displayed on both the LB2 control screen, as well as being made visible on the dual CRT type HRP2/100/1,5A. The latter scope is a very accurate means of aligning the actual time base phase inside Nachtfee as well as the actual (instant) time base phase of the simulated aircraft display. This works only when the mutual distance or range off-set is known. This data had to be provided by means of the Freya-EGON system, of which the Nachtfee consol was most likely an integral part of. Still sadly - some are refusing to take notice of our findings and are nonetheless believing that they inhibit the only truth possible, without themselves proving the contrary.
On 8 March we have started with reconstructing the FuG25a and Gemse signal exchange. It was decided to construct a testing table (Prüftafel). Which finally materialised in a concept using the parts we have. On 16 March 2012 it even started responding onto pulses signals provided and sending its reply. The next move is watching whether the Gemse receiver is able to receive the FuG25a signal.
On 22 February 2012, I shouted Eureka, as I have discovered the most likely way Nachtfee had been operated and controlled (Bladwijzer3). It is always thrilling reaching the state where one is feeling that a discovery is about to happen. Coming step by step, after logical consideration, nearer solving open queries, is exciting!
On 16 February 2012, a group from France visited our collection. Their major aim was to discuss what kind of exhibition could be made in the former radar bunker at Douvres. After a quite lively discussion, it was agreed upon that they should borrow our Liechtenstein SN2 apparatus. It was considered, that the display should be attractive, maybe a bit magic. The Douvres exhibition will be open to the public before the 6th of June and until about half of September of this year. Our motivation is, that it is in line to our Foundation objectives. Also, the Nachtfee projects is reaching a stage of conclusion. However, as the Nachtfee 'order' or command console is only a part of the chain of information transfer, it is worth it to investigate how the Nachtfee data interacts to the original IFF transponder FuG25a system. It is already been discovered, that keeping synchronism between the Nachtfee data and the CRT projection inside the aircraft is extremely delicate. This is in my perception, with the state of technique of 1944, most likely impossible to maintain. We have not yet found a conclusive document on it, thus all my estimations are simply guesses not more nor less. Therefore, I would like to introduce an additional webpage especially dedicated to the following up of the Nachtfee Survey. The recently traced so-called Nachtfee reports are covering a wide field of German wartime technology, but hardly may be called of technical nature. As these were mainly relying on P/W (PoW) interrogations, with all their inaccuracies.
Our Nachtfee Survey (project) is nearing its conclusion. Although, it may take some time before everything is finished. The actual bottleneck is that for continuation this survey we need more information; such as how the aircraft display system (FuG136?) worked. Though, also how the Nachtfee information was transmitted by the Freya-EGON station (EGON-B) towards the aircraft. Generally speaking, reports exist, but these are most rarely of a technical nature, even when these are designated being Technical. It is in some respect sad that some who were very much dedicated to the Nachtfee Survey have quit. That their vision differs from mine is part of the information exchange - but should always being based on realistic estimations; and not on what the Germans call: Wunschdenken (beyond reality). This may be the way human contacts often go, but still it is a counter productive process.
January 2012 has now nearly passed. Nachtfee, the survey which occupied most of my time, has now reached a state where it works. Although, the project is not yet brought to a conclusion. However, the 'order' or command is causing a phase shift of the Nachtfee signal. The internal HT power supply is brought to live again. The Thermostat is also operational. The selectable quartz channels are working again (only Q7- Q9 and Q10 are striking, and may likely never come operational); they are synchronising the signal output. Whereby each successive quartz channel is causing 2 Hz frequency deviation of the Nachtfee signal output. We would like to simulate an aircraft display and watching what the various interactions are.
Year 2012 ↑
Year 2011 ↓
On 25 December 2011, we have configured a new, page 3 superseding webpage, known as page 3a. This jump is made as we are entering a new phase in our Nachtfee Survey; being the moment where we are switching on the Nachtfee apparatus. After having bridged all faulty capacitors (99% of all were), of course, bearing in mind that all should be converted in its original condition. Also HT is not derived from its internal power system, but originating from an external controllable one. Measurements have not yet done in a systematic manner, but my first objective is, looking how things respond. The Nachtfee technology is not yet understood fully, even the purpose of the various valves is unknown. It proved, however, that my deduction that the empty valve base most likely is meant for an EL11, is correct. At its anode a nice saw-tooth pulse is existing. I also found at a certain valve anode that there exists an interaction between a signal and the vector setting of the "order compass". This screen shot clearly shows two signal components: the main pulse which repeats itself every 20 ms and a higher frequency component, of which origin I have no idea. It might even originate from the about 974 Hz signal, which apparently is locked upon the 1 out of 10 (selectable) quartz-channels.
We have become now heavily engaged in the Nachtfee Survey (Page 2; Page 3; MLK page 4) survey. It is enfolding itself as being a very complex system. In the early begin of our survey everything seems to be different than is thought. Really everything! Step by step we are now working in the direction of bringing the system to life again, and beginning to understand some aspects of it. I also started with a brief progress report, in which all the steps are being followed; which might also constitute a kind of documentation. Schematics are drawn, however, still sketch wise. Nevertheless, quite some information is by this means on paper recorded. However, keeping a unique historical artefact in a good condition (preserving it as well) is having our primary thoughts. Though, as no one is possessing details on it, at least we could nowhere trace any sign of it, we have, nevertheless, decided to make it working again. A very comprehensive task, where one have to consider during every step whether things are reversible? It have been found that 99% of the tar-roll-capacitors are failing; we have to unsolder them at a single side and then bridging them by a modern type. Stressing our component stocks considerably! We also have demounted the "Order compass" as its screen is suffering from a combination of fungus and rust (metal oxidation). Paper hygroscopic phenomenon is doing the rest. As to prevent the semi-transparent scale to be damaged and lost forever, we have to dismantle it. A rather delicate task, which should be carefully approached. In the meantime we have had, for the first time, connected 220 V ac on to the Nachtfee main chassis. As all rectifier valves are not being installed (where simply missing when we got it from the US), we only had to monitor whether we got 12.6 volt at the RV12P2000 valves (and being alert for any sign of smoke!). At 220 V we measured 12,65 volt, which is according the specs. One valve is not yet determined though, we have deduced that an open valve socket is likely meant for an EL11. As the general filament voltage is 12.6 V and an EL11 is having 6.3 V we must look whether this indeed is the case. I cannot remember having seen a German 12.6 V equivalent. I also got a very interesting British wartime copy A.D.I. Report 101 of 16 March 1944 (see more down the page). A.D.I. was actually R.V. Jones's office. It shows us, that what so often is told in the many years since the conclusion of fighting on the European continent in May 1945, some aspects differ, however, from what is told time and again.
Our annual Foundation Board meeting was held on 26 November 2011. Amongst the usual matters I got permission to participate on behalf of our Foundation (C.D.V. & T.) in the shortly to establish "Foundation Telecommmunicatieerfgoed Nederland" (sTEN). This particular permission is a premise for being constituted for a governing function in sTEN. My first function is being its secretary, whereas Rob Timmermans is the Chairman and Frans Driessen is becoming responsible for the finances. Fellow board members are (mainly) on behalf of two former KPN (formerly PTT) groups of retired employees; both groups running a Museum Collection. The Teles group is taking care of the remaining Bell Telephone Collection. The former Belgium Bell Telephone Company had disdainfully wasted their collection, of which some parts went back to the late 1800s. However, only by coincident and persistence of some private persons, some has luckily been salvaged. Another sTEN member will be on behalf of the Omroepzender Museum. A sTEN member can only become representative on behalf of a legal entity; like organisations, foundations, museums etc.
Our annual 'Foundation C.D.V.&T. Board Meeting' is scheduled in Diemen for 26 November 2011.
On 19 November we have had an open day for NVHR members although, everybody was welcome (having a different batch). Not too many turned up. Nevertheless, some totally new faces were among them. I guess, that the number of visitors was limited due to the lack of adequate publicity on behalf of the NVHR. Those attending got our full attention. We also have switched-on our Würzburg radar apparatus, which is every time a thrilling experience. We opened before 10 'o clock in the morning and I closed the door just before seven 'o clock in the evening; this may be an indication that visitors turned up spread over the day though, also that we had time going more into details than usually. Also well known 'Bernhard Terlingen' (the brother of the famous late Dutch radio reporter Theo Terlingen) attended, which guaranteed some lively discussions. As he is often responding most enthusiastically.
On 12 November 2011 we have held our first Reparatiedag (Repair-day) for German apparatus over the time span of say 1920 - 1945. Please read our special Reparatiedag report. Not too many visitors by the way, but a very interesting task bringing a Torn Fu b1 module, lacking its housing, in to a kind of working order.
On the same day 12 November 2011, we got, after two years of desperately waiting, the long awaited Nachtfee (FuG 136) apparatus from the US. Please view the FuG 136 - Nachtfee page. The set proved to be far more complicated than expected and it will be a real challenge finding out how it actually worked. As Nachtfee was in a kind of premature state of development, this system might have been tested somewhere in late weeks of 1944. It was shipped to the US (1945) as being a trophy of war (CEE or CT) and further information on EGON-B (eventually EGON-A) haven't been found yet. Even Fritz Trenkle dedicated some lines on to Nachtfee, but comparing his text and seeing the apparatus we possess, he might never have seen a real Nachtfee apparatus himself nor have he had access to further sources of information. This makes our task even more thrilling. Complicating is, that this Nachtfee order and controlling set must have been only one-out-of several units (modules). Nachtfee and EGON-B were both part of a Freya like secondary radar system with incorporated 'data orders' towards the night fighter crew. Whatever we will find out, getting a sound understanding of what the real circuit is about - we always will have to make guesses, as all our effort is the consequence of reversed engineering (backwards engineering).
On 6 November 2011 time has come to create an additional Exhibits-details page 4, as to prevent for overloading of Exhibits-details 3 webpage. Some of the page 3 content is copied and being transferred to the new page 4 (deleting what from the previous page what has been moved to the next one). This move is given by the understanding that quite some have to access internet by means of slow wireless access. I encountered in Italy myself, that downloading the heavy loaded pages of my website is sometimes cumbersome, especially when general public is on holidays and during some hours in the weekend. Those having adsl and other fast means does not suffer from this internet downside (phenomenon).
The annual Hellmeeting held on 29 October 2011 was a success and altogether we counted 15 attendees. Group photo was taken by Frank Dörenberg.
Although, a decision is not yet taken, I am dubbing whether it does make sense to increase the screen resolution with which our website is created. We still use 800 x 600. One may ask why are you doing this still? The answer is quite simple, by doing so nearly every one in the world is always having the entire content of our website fitted to their screen. How annoying is it looking at a webpage where you can only see some part of its content (only those having the same or higher resolution doesn't face it). It is sometimes making it impossible to print its content soundly. Most web designers seem to lack totally the understanding of the need by other equipped web users. They are mainly focussed on what they are using themselves. Other people is not important, seemingly! I believe, however, that this is a very unfriendly stand against the millions of web-searchers. The first step to approach might be changing from 800 x 600 towards 1024 x 768. Not a big step yet. But when doing so it will be firstly noticed on this webpage in advance.
Maybe due to the autumn period and the sometimes depressing weather, thoughts are coming up why are we doing all this? Are we undertaking the right things? Our website is being created with the idea of making public what we have in our archives. Though, by no means neglecting the fact that Germany caused the second world war with all its negative implications of crimes against humanity. However, the younger generation is having nowadays a totally different scope (horizon) and is lacking understanding of what the real context of these bleak years were. Our technical time-span covered is about a galaxy away from our (current) today's techniques. Using WIKIPEDIA it is not easy to reproduce the understanding of what normal life had been between 1933 and 1945. The many glorious stories told are by far not explaining what the actual context was. We do not pretend that we are providing a complete picture, but we are offering a quite wide spread impression; sometimes going more in to details and sometimes giving an overview only. Whatever profession, or being even a student, the newspapers or most university lectures are passing on a rather fragmented and quite often a distorted picture. As so often, life is, and certainly was, different from what it looks like today. Having said all this, it is now time looking forward again. The following gatherings are being scheduled:
29 October 2011. The annual Hellmeeting (users of Hellschreiber apparatus)
12 November 2011. For the first time: German wartime electronics repair day. Where we would like to take care of technical problems. Like the NVHR Radio Reparatiedag, one can bring in a set and we will try to detect a fault, maybe finding out what component is failing. It is then to the owner himself to repair his set at his own place finally.
19 November 2011. An open day for NVHR members, but everybody interested is welcome as well. But, please inform us that you would like to join.
We have decided - that it might make sense to implement on our website some of the new logos my wife Karin has created recently. She has made some artistic compilation which I would like to put on a new webpage; as to give the visitors a choice which one they enjoy most. It is, nevertheless clear that the current is too limited, and should be extended in due course.
On 22 June I received the message that my friend Jan Broodbakker sadly has passed away a week ago. I could not attend the funeral as the family couldn't find my address. Again, go to your GP as early as possible for a psa test! Whatever opinion some doctors may have against this approach. It is within a month time my second friend who has died from prostate cancer!! Both brave men suffering a tremendous lot of pains and desperate waiting, without any hope! He had been of a great help during our move towards the Klooster place in 2008. Without his support this would have been a hardly manageable undertaken. He showed in most occasions inventiveness. What to think of moving the 1.5 kW transmitter weighting about 1100 kg. He also welded the exhibits frames!
We have recently dedicated a lot of time on putting component photos on our website. I do not know whether our regular website visitors can always appreciate them. Our aim is, however, to reflect aspects of what we posses, not in a structural order but in the way it comes to my attention (like what is inside a particular cupboard or drawer). Viewing components is like visiting a flee market, where you see devices which you often do not understand where these were meant for; some of the items are displayed on our 'rariteitencabinet' as well. Displaying these artefacts make only sense as long as one gets some background information. My objective is to stimulate interest on small devices as well, which coming into being often is the result of profound ingenuity! Systems couldn't run without these items. Why not noticing what it is about? Nevertheless, some of you still may find these items boring, but I strongly believe it is an aspect of our museum (Studiensammlung) and should be dealt with. We are, nevertheless, always open for suggestions. Please do not hesitate to discuss this with us! Without feedback we cannot anticipate on to what you would like to see otherwise. Like everything is floating, also showing small devices will eventually come to a conclusion. Thereafter a new topic is to be emphasised upon. Maybe we should for a while consider what we have on historical electrical instrumentation in our MLK archives/store. A different matter, maybe some of you will like it. But it is a different line (objective) and not so many is having an appeal for electrical measurements. Please do not yet be upset, this will not be taken up before autumn time. Maybe it should be a mixed approach, continuing what we have done for years on the web, and step by step introducing some aspects of other technologies. Some of which, from the engineering point of view, being very intriguing. Science in the past often relied heavily upon it. It is nowadays no great deal to achieve accuracies of, say, 0.5 % - 0.1 %; but it was a real challenge up to the digital age. Which only gained maturity not so long ago!
Since about a week (since 14 June) we have introduced a new webpage called 'Components display', as the original webpage Exhibits details 2 was becoming too much over loaded; therefore the various small components items have been transferred from it towards the new 'components display' webpage. Although, this 'details 2' page was only started with mid March 2011. Thus just about three month ago and is already becoming heavily loaded!
After all background materials had been brought together I have started on 3 June 2011 with a new paper contribution on : Aspects of German Radar Calibrations. Please notice: my handed in Synopsis
On 31 May about 8 o' clock in the morning, the entire process of uploading about 1000 MB was completed (took about six hours). We guess that we might have been out of the 'air of the air' for about 12 hours. Although, within half an hour the index page was already accessible, containing the message that our image web server www.cdvandt.org was fully available. The image website may sooner or later be used for doing experiments, like with video or similar downloadable subjects.
On 19 may 2011, we have initiated the final process of moving our (validation, etc) www.cdvandt.org domain to a new server, rented from www.one.com. Our current server (provider) is far too expensive especially in respect to 'cost versus server space'. The ratio is 29.50 per month for 1 GB versus 2.60 per month for 10GB server space! (prices all excl. VTA) When we, with great difficulty would have extended our current server up to 2 GB only - they would have charged us with: 29.50 + 12 x 9.50 = 143.50 Euros per month, excl. VTA! (neglecting the difference with and without annual domain charging) Comparing 143.50 versus 2.60 per month for even 5 times the data storage is a ridiculous ratio!!! To keep our regular visitors informed we have created an image domain www.cdvandext2.org as to minimise the time span of inaccessibility. It might nevertheless take > five days before everything runs as usually again. Taking into account that the upload speed provided by my provider (being my e-mail account) is often ridiculous low! And, uploading 1000 MB might take, when we have luck, about at least seven hours. You can imagine the pressure we are then being concerned with! On Saturday 21st of May a Veron group (afdeling Woerden) visited us. Although, all together a good day, it is also a sad day for me, as I received the message that my good old friend "Maatje" Ab (Appie) Blommers (June 1943) has passed away. I knew that he was seriously ill, but when we had telephone contact about last Christmas, he told me that he was feeling rather well, only encountering a bit quicker fatigue. I didn't expect that things would go wrong so quickly. I have a serious advice: whatever your GP is telling you otherwise, persist in a regular 'psa' level check! Too many friends are currently in serious troubles, some even younger than I am! We were friends since 1972, where he worked for AG Electronics (Alex Gal) in Amsterdam. It was, for instance, Ab Blommers who arranged for me (about 1993) that I could let X-ray the Lichtenstein SN2 antenna rig, which I had on loan from Günter Hütter. But didn't knew how to dismantle it, without damaging a thing. His next door neighbour is the nuclear test site in Holland, where a special X-ray group is established to 'investigate (viewing) inside nuclear gear' like valve and tube constructions (Euratom and others). They made for me beautiful X-rays of which we still possess the huge negatives. It otherwise wouldn't have been possible to know what is inside the 'boom' - the coaxial-line with balun and related techniques. Lichtenstein SN2 Some times one need a friend as to solve mission impossible! There are not so many around by the way, especially not when you need them desperately. I believe that nowadays the situation is becoming worth, everything is so much over regulated that this kind of friendly support is becoming impossible.
Since Friday 8 April 2011, we have established an integral image website of our main website. The reason is: that our current provider is extremely discouraging the extension of our present data limit of 1000 MB. After intensive considerations, we have decided to move our current domain, which is like a shell around the real URL, towards www.one.com. They offer conditions that are far more reasonable. My first concern was, to test the way in which our website is running on their new server. It proves to perform soundly. To get an idea how much work is involved in transferring the website data by means of an 'ftp' program onto the free space of the new server - it took me about 7 hours! Uploading is a rather slow process, as providers are often squeezing this kind of data transfer. Normally this does not bother much, as we convey only limited amounts of data. Though, 920 MB divided in several thousand separate files is demanding time. However, our next step is to move our domain to a new server of: www.one.com . Delicate is filling in the necessary application form, as to prevent the loss of our domain and to keep the "domain black out" as short as possible. According one.com this might take about five days. This is the reason why our image website, which is entirely equal to the one you usually use, is being introduced; www.cdvandtext2.org . Please store the cdvandtext2 URL in your bookmarks as well. Somewhere in May 2011, there will be a period of time that our current domain is not accessible, during the domain transfer. However, the spare or test site will be kept in operation in some respect. On the long run perhaps with a different kind of data.
We have attached on 6 April 2011; CIOS File No. XXXI-2 which subject is: RESEARCH WORK UNDERTAKEN BY THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES AND TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS FOR THE BEVOLLMAECHTIGTER FUER HOCHFREQUENZTECHNIK ; INDEPENDENT RESEARCH ON ASSOCIATED SUBJECTS. The aim of this report was - to investigate what was commenced on behalf of B.H.F. (BHF). My personal opinion is, that the report is only very partly about BHF work, as most is of a complete different nature. Namely quite normal university work. However, when the war progressed the nature of their work moved towards to some more applied physics. What the real value of this new contribution is, is to be judged by each individual. I believe though, that it gives a brief vision in what was in the mind of the Allied interrogators and, maybe, what the just being liberated individuals felt that they had to answer. My perception is not that they were hiding their recent past. It is also difficult to feel what the tension between the interrogators or interviewers was versus the just "liberated" scientists.
During the weekend of 2 / 3 April 2011 it has been settled that "German equipment repair day" is to be held on 12 November 2011 in our Klooster premises. This is the first time we are organising this, which might cause some confusion, but only by jumping into it we have to learn how this has to be actually managed. To understand how such an event has to be organised, I have joined the NVHR "Radio repair day" held earlier this year. Dick Zijlmans will support us as is Hans Muijser of the SRS group and others are, Deo volente, doing as well.
Yesterday 19 March we experienced our first 'open day' of the year 2011. The day was this time mainly stressing onto aspects of German radar. Just over 42 visitors turned up and joined the sometimes lively discussions and demonstrations. We showed, among other artefacts, an operational Schreibmax as well as an operating Naxos and Würzburg FuSE62D radar system. The latter, of course, with its power absorbing 'Leistungsmesser' (dummy-load)(Ln 20978). We also demonstrated the artificial target 'Rehbock' in working order in conjunction with the operating Würzburg system. The Rehbock apparatus is being interconnected by means of an especially constructed bi-directional coupler. I also gave a talk on aspects of German 'airborne radar' and some of its implications. Among the subjects was Lichtenstein b/c and the 'secrets' of the Lichtenstein SN2 antenna design and Berlin radar. It was, however, also a good opportunity to focus again onto the establishment of the AGR Commission very shortly (two and a half weeks later) after the Germans had captured on 3 February 1943 the remains of a H2S radar apparatus in a crashed British Sterling bomber aircraft south-east of Rotterdam; that is why they called it: Rotterdam-Gerät (Rotterdam apparatus). The talk, though, had to be given in an unusual manner, so that also the not technical educated visitors could grasp the techno-historical implications. That this day turned out being a sound success was also due to the support of volunteers such as: Dick Zijlmans - Saskia Zwart and my wife Karin! Some visitors spend almost 7 hours!
We also intend to hold a so called 'German Repair Day', during which I shall try to trace faults and giving repair advice to brought-in radio sets. The exact date is not yet pointed, but should be held in October or November 2011. Please keep an eye onto our agenda, for the actual date! When you regard yourself being capable to assist us, do not hesitate and please contact us! (see the actual address at about us)
We have settle the date for an open day on 19 March 2011, during which we would like to focus on Radar. We would like to show our Würzburg (Wurzburg) electrically. It is my intention to focus also on Lichtenstein SN2 night fighter radar, which we have mechanically complete. Third, we would like to discuss about the Berlin radar, which was derived from the knowledge the Germans gained after the discovered the British H2S set. This latter set was found in a crashed British Sterling bomber aircraft on 3 February 1943 (five days after Bomber Command was allowed to operate it above German held territories). My lecture will be on "Aspects of German Airborne Radar Techniques".
In the course of February several new documents have been added. This time we considered that a change of topics is justified and we have started again with attaching CIOS files. These are about 1945/46 investigation reports on German industry and science. In contrast to the BIOS reports, which are mainly handled by British investigators, are the CIOS reports often based on American input. In many respect these are more interesting reports. The Americans took far more advantage of German intellectual gains than did Great Britain. The most advanced ones are generally the FIAT reports which are also more an American than a British undertaken.
On 30 January I have created a new webpage on High Frequency as a weapon, which is linking you via weblinks strongly recommended, onto a webpage called HF-War. In this latter page I explain why we provide this hyperlink. I also make it clear that our aim is 'History of Technology’, and that we do not want to promote Nazi like ideologies; and that one has to agree upon this statement to access finally the actual web-link. Maybe I am a bit too cautious, but one should always bear in mind the implications of this miserable period. One may on the other hand say, why having a concern as the target of the link is pointing at a document accessible from the US Nation Archives. However, it was send to me because a Siemens Secret telex was shown. But what the sender most likely didn't consider was the fact that the aim of this film was showing aspects of electronic warfare (EW), and this aspect is dealt with to a great extent. I was very astonished that the Germans showed amongst German, partly secret items, that they also showed some genuine British items and techniques. The purpose of this GAF instruction film was to inform aircraft personnel in that kind EW field.
On 28 January I received an e-mail from Eddy Boeve who I recently have met again in an Amsterdam Pub. He is an ICT expert and I had already discussed my concern last year whether it is possible to implement a search engine into our website? He was so kind to open a Google account on behalf of our website and he has prepared the source text which since today (29 January 2011) is implemented into our introduction page. I strongly believe - that this facility can be of great help to the many daily visitors. Entering a keyword will provide directly all that is accessible via our 'introduction page'. An advantage is that all concerned page titles is being showed instantly, without the nuisance of non relevant links; of which some are misleading you. Such as for example, when you enter a word that clearly is connected to a technical/historical topic and that you are drawn into the website of a 'travel agent' or that like!
On 25 January we have again attached a bunch of documents. This time on Lo70KL40 - the radar altitude meter type FuG103-103A and a manual on wave propagation (Wellenberatung). All is to be found in the manuals page.
On 23 January 2011 we have attached a new document onto our 'manual' page concerning the single sideband adapter (interface) EB1/3a to the famous Köln E52 xx type receivers. This unit is handling the IF signal as it really should be done. It is mixing the 1 MHz IF of the Köln receiver down to 15 kHz; here the entire processing takes place. The sideband filter is having 20 poles and at its output the 15 kHz signal is being mixed again in a ring-modulator as to make it an synchronous audible signal. From the front where the IF enters the module a signal is being picked up which is synchronizing the ring-modulator oscillator signal. This works well as long as there exists a ground level of suppressed carrier signal, which was quite common practice for commercial signals. AM signals can wonderfully be listened at as its signal quality is optimal. Although, the reproduced bandwidth is limited by the bandwidth of the 15 kHz 20 pole filter section. This module also possessed a provision for F1 mode.
On 17 January we received a letter from Ingo Pötschke in which he had kindly send us a CD-Rom containing the 27 pages of a 1946 report on Wullenwever, the outstanding German long range HF/DF system. This report was actually made on behalf of the Russian ruled OSW institution (entity) in Berlin. An organisation that engaged many famous names which formerly were heading or had been leading in the German wartime electronics industry and science. With the exception of a few (being not at home when the Russians turned up at their living places to catch them), all had been deported to Russia (more or less forced labour). These men were released about the mid 1950s. Some returned to eastern Germany then known as DDR since 1949, and others went to the west. To accomplish it for the web was a rather exhausting job, as Ingo Pötschke had prepared it in quite high resolution 'jpg format' (one should make (preparing) it in ‘bmp’ format instead. This 'bit mapped format' doesn’t cause data reduction as is jpg having! JPG is very poor in handling line structures as text actually represents, especially in respect to the file size!). My first attempt to convert it into pdf gave a file size of 60MB! I then had to reduce the resolution of each photo separately. This time it takes only 10 MB. Still a bit high, but the compromise is a good average between data content and reproduction quality. The text might seemingly being a bit weak, but this is not caused by our manipulation though, is originating from the original file quality. The OSW paper quality and type writer ink might still have been from the wartime.
On 15/16 January we have attached a bunch of new documents onto this website (Manuals). These documents were kindly provided by Mr. Ernst S. Wagner from Greding Germany. We have modified a tiny bit the alphabetic list at our introduction page; as it is since possible to watch more adequately when new documents has been attached. In some respect is the building up of this website victim of the erratic circumstances, as it is often not known in advance what kind of new findings is coming across. It might sometimes not directly making sense to all of you, as you sometimes would like to see special documents to be made public first. Over the long-run it, nevertheless, is broadening the scope of this website. I am playing in my mind with the intension to concentrate now more on the group of: FIAT-CIOS-BIOS files again, which we possess in our archives.
On the Wurzburg-Repair project: Finishing the work on the inter-wiring between the power supplies NA I - NA II _ NA III and the so-called Pintsch-Regler (the carbon-pile-regulator which controls the 180 V a.c. of the Würzburg system. Most Würzburg modules are running at 180 V a.c., which is derived from 220 V mains voltage (actually separated from the power line by means of the controlling NT62 transformer). In principle the carbon-pile is wired in series with the system 'L' line (modern symbol). The system current is regulated such, that in most circumstances 180 V a.c. is being kept within a few volts. Only when the first automatic fuse 'S 1' is being switched on the voltage-drop might be too low, due to inadequate current consumption. As soon as the next two fuses S2 and S 3 are being activated, the Pintsch-Regler is keeping the controlled 180 V a.c. within its limits. Dick Zijlmans is planning to upgrade the inter-connection by means of state of the art techniques.
We have currently upgraded our website with a bunch of sometimes unique documents on 6 and 11 January 2011. We occupy now a web server space of: 784.725 MB all bound together by means of 8600 hyperlinks; which are accessible from our introduction page. Keeping our website up-to-date and locating materials - preparing it for the web and designing a new page, and also issuing the text, has become now nearly a fulltime job. It is clear though, that this work has to be interrupted owing to other, also essential, commitments. Among these many materials is to be named: the so-called Meddo report - The railway version of Giant Wurzburg (FuSE65E)
On 17 December a new page on the first "Elefant" radar transmitter have been added. A rare occasion, where we can see how this module was constructed. The document originated from a wartime AEG file, it, nevertheless, was a Telefunken project. I cannot prove it, regarding the purpose of this document, we may assume that it was a prototype. It was constructed and finally tested on 21 December 1943.
The Dutch Surplus Radio Society (SRS) visited us on 11 December 2010, it turned out to be a very vivid day. Totally 30 attendees have joined this meeting. The talk held that afternoon dealt with aspects of German communications during WW II. It was based on my paper given for the DEHS at Shrivenham, October 2008. The first visitors arrived already before we should be open and the last one left about a quarter to six, spanning 6 hours It was a pleasure to have a group around of very motivated people.
On 19 November 2010 we have started with investigating the technique of the power supply (MZSS) to the Schreibmax apparatus. It seemingly is a quite time consuming project. On 23rd the Schreibmax started running and was more or less responding on text signals. Its mechanical and electrical principles are already available on our website at - MZSS - MZSE Schreibmax. We would like to make a short video and sound recording which might be put on YouTube (not yet accomplished).
We are also intending to modify the interconnections between the Wurzburg apparatus and the power supplies. Dick Zijlmans has decided, that he would like to build a state of the art interconnecting rail-mounting-system (produced by Wieland).
After Dick has completed the modification of the Wurzburg interconnections, we would like to start up a new project. Our thoughts are going into the direction of bringing our Siemens G-Schreiber type T52d to life again. It will first be necessary to lubricate its entire motor mechanism again. This had regularly to be done every three months. Considering that it was done about twenty years ago for the last time, it is wise to start firstly with its lubrication. The second step is to restore the original G-Schreiber line interface. Then linking the interfaces together so that eventually the Siemens telex type T68 is able to communicate with type T52d. When all goes according expectation, the coded T52d message can be received by the punch-tape-receiver of the Siemens type T68 telex machine. The next step is to put the received punch-tape in the T68 punch-transmitter so that the T52d machine is receiving the formerly coded message again and should now be printed in a clear text message (the same text that originally had been typed onto the T52d keyboard.
13 November: Annual Board meeting of our Foundation (19de Jaarvergadering). Two members have stepped down (Adri de Keijzer who joined the board from January 2001 and Dick Rollema for health reasons, he joined us from the very beginning on 7 December 1994) and two new members have been welcomed - Paul Reuvers and Marc Simons, both very well known in the - crypto-history communities - world wide (http://www.cryptomuseum.com).
Deo volente, in October 2011, I would like starting up a new search project in the British National Archives (NA) which was formerly known as PRO (Kew Gardens)
We are currently also rearranging our moveable archive shelves. Among it, Andries van Bronckhorst is helping us with reshuffling the archive library, so that we can maintain a logical library order for the foreseeable future.
In September 2010, we have started upgrading our 'Radio Mentor' webpage (Mentor various) again. During reshuffling our archives, I came across some wartime volumes and decided that it does make sense to copy some issues integrally. Reading its content, one is coming into a most curious (strange) world. Whereas the war was taking its tremendous blood toll in Europe, the very most Radio-Mentor articles are almost dealing with peace time topics. In 1942 even articles on calculating the design of transmitters is being discussed. Not well known, even in today's Germany, is that some Radio Hams existed until their unconditional surrender in May 1945 (please consider also: DASD 1939-1944). Every issue had an article on aspects of 'Communication' receivers. The word 'Communication' is then being spelled in the Anglo-Saxon way! It is, however, known that Radio-Mentor was also read in countries abroad. Whereas in, for instance, Holland the possession of broadcast receivers was from, say, mid 1943 onwards for most of their citizens prohibited matters (most broadcast receivers had been collected (confiscated) by the occupying German authorities; of course, some did not hand in their valuable radio apparatus, but this was then being regarded a criminal offence!). Radio-Mentor which was also distributed in The Netherlands - still published radio related schematics. Even dealing with schematics of quite simply to be build shortwave receivers or convertors. By the way, astonishing is, that in nearly every issue an article is dedicated to aspects of FM broadcast techniques! It is clear, that FM technique was very well appreciated in Germany and the US, this in contrast to Britain where even in the early 1950s still fears discussions on the pros and cons of FM broadcasting were ongoing.
About June, I discovered that what we are doing is also being noticed at a TU-Delft website of PARSAX:
Brief summary of what has been undertaken in the past year 2010:
On 9 November 2010 the volunteers of the TNO-FEL Museum (Waalsdorpervlakte) of The Hague have visited us.
During the year 2010 it was possible to bring our Wurzburg radar system to life again (please notice our Wurzburg-Rep! survey). Deo volente, being accomplished in the course of next year.
We have been committed to the CAVMAG 2010 Conference on the 70 years anniversary of the invention of the 'cavity magnetron'. It had been proved however, that this claim was not entirely correct. What is true is - that the British produced world's first high power magnetron, suitable for cm radar applications. As so often in history, inventions are hardly a single man's project. The Russians built the first cavity magnetron already about 1938. Although, their estimated HF power was only a few hundred watts (CW). (Please also consider on this subject our CAVMAG 2010 page, as well as my reflection on the implication of Randall and Boot's invention).
On 26 September 2010 both Phil Judkins and AOB had been invited to repeat their lecture "CHESS" for the IET (Doncaster section). Subject on EW between the Allies and Germany.
January 2010, Luca Fusari visited us for a few days.
Brief summary of what we have done in the year 2009
March 2009, we gave an open day for invited guests.
March 2009, Dick Zijlmans's Radio Café group was visiting us.
End of March - first days of April, we hosted a group of IEHG members.
In July my very good friend Helmut Liebich (DL1OY) has sadly passed away. He had been very ill for a while and was suffering from heart and kidney insufficiency. When one is being asked, who do you like most in the world (neglecting your nearest relatives, of course)? - I must say - it was Helmut! He was upmost kind and had a sharp mind and a broad knowledge as well as understanding of historical context. He grew up in Breslau, the same town where my Grandfather came from. One of his sons took over his father's amateur call sign, so that DL1OY is still on the air.
August/September 2009, an extensive discussion was ongoing between Hugh Griffiths, Phil Judkins and myself. The subject was on Klein-Heidelberg, which was world's first bi-static radar system. Phil's contribution was to bring in files he recently had traced in the NA (formerly PRO). Due to this and my understanding of Würzburg technology I was able to re-design most of its principles, even the schematics could be reconstructed. The task was now to clean up the drawings and correcting the very many apparently made circuit faults! Some schematics called for at least 10,000 mouse clicks!
September 2009, Radio Café group was visiting us again.
15 October 2009, Phil Judkins and AOB presented their CHESS lecture for the DEHS at Shrivenham (UK).
Mid November 2009, we hosted the annual Hell-Group.
21 November, we hosted the BETEG (Behoud Technisch Erfgoed) group. The aim was bringing together all those interested in the conservation of technical collections.
28 November 2009, we hosted the Mengelberg society. Newly discovered gramophone recordings of 1944 (Radio Paris live recordings of January 1944) were played and a retired Concertgebouw musician played on here own instrument and explained the musical difficulties encountered.
On 28 March we became the legal owner of the 'Klooster' premises. At that time we had an agreement with the previous owner, that he could have an additional half a year to clear the space (actually it took some time longer) . Though, we were free to clear the depot and some of the still occupied spaces (moving his belongings into corners). In the meantime we had to move from the PP place artefacts into the new space. Refurbishing the 'Klooster' place and setting up our new exhibition (Exhibits New) took say the rest of the exhausting year 2008.
In the meantime, I prepared a paper for the DEHS (Defence Electronics History Society) given at Shrivenham UK, on aspects of German wartime Communications, in October.
That year was dedicated mainly to sorting out our archives and doing some long over due work on our dBase.
In September the SRS was visiting us for the first time.
Visited in February London for archives search at the Patent Office and Science Museum Library for the BIOS-CIOS and FIAT reports.
I worked on a very difficult and demanding job which was to prepare a catalogue of all artefacts available. This took me several month tough work. Our existing old card index was kindly digitalised by Adri de Keijzer at that time still a Foundation Board Member (stepped back on 13 November 2010).
In October I gave a paper for the DEHS at Shrivenham UK on aspects of German wartime Airborne radar.
In January I did together with Reinhold Liebich a search in the Municipal Archives of Cologne (Stadtarchiv, the one that collapsed into the ground in 2007). We traced there two key mini-advertisements to the Hülsmeyer Story on 100 Years of Radar. Namely the advertisements where Heinrich Mannheim is offering himself as a financier and the next day of November 1903 Hülsmeyer's call for a financial associate. (Radar I & Radar II). I also gave a talk on Hülsmeyer and 100 Years of Radar for the Historical Society of Düsseldorf. Hülsmeyer's family had arranged a gathering with family members and Hülsmeyer's only still living son Edgar. Interesting is, that he told me that his father bothered his whole life with "layers", as long as he could remember. I believe a burden of nearly every professional "Inventor".
In October 2006, I gave a talk for the VDE historical section in Aachen. This culminated in my contribution to a VDE book.
In November 2006, I visited the Cologne Archives again, and found the often referred to - but never reproduced advertisements of 1902, as well as Heinrich Mannheim's death announcement (he died 15 January 1923). In contrast to what the German archive in Beul had told Hülsmeyer's grand son, Mannheim died in Cologne, whereas the authorities stated that they did not have information on him; thus he has not died in Cologne, so simple is that!
I also visited in November - DEGON (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ortung und Navigation) in Bonn and got their kind permission to scan their entire AGR Protocols on the Rotterdam Apparatus (H2S) (521 pages) and bringing it at our website. AGR means Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rotterdam.
I approached London twice (February and November), for Patent as well as BIOS-CIOS and FIAT document search (British Library where the Patent Office is and SML Science Museum Library at Imperial College, London).
November 2006, the book titled 'Radio Malabar' was issued. It was based on Klaas Dijkstra's manuscript that I have rediscovered when I was involved with clearing the Radio Kootwijk (Gebouw A) site. Please consider for details the agenda (diary) of the year 2000. This book was a great success, as on the first day, during the "Dag van de Radioamateur" in Apeldoorn 110 books were already being sold by Benny Emaus, the publisher. That I was able to make it public, might be called a miracle! It all started when I found the manuscript, it might even have been a preliminary version, in the Kootwijk archive, by which I was heavily involved. The bunch of papers were actually poor quality Xerox copies, which sometimes where double copied for a single page as to get the top and one as to see the bottom section of the text. I regarded its content being most interesting. However, in April 2003 I visited with the IEHG the stores of the "Museum voor Communicatie" in the Hague (formerly PTT Museum). I knew the curator Jacques Caspers already for years and discussed with him whether it would be possible to get Klaas Dijkstra's manuscript published. Oh he said - "no problems the copyrights is owned by the museum" (this would have been the case when Klaas Dijkstra had been an employee of the Dutch PTT organisation, which he apparently wasn't. He was an employee of the PTT organisation in Dutch East-Indies. This body was in contrast directed by the ministry of colonial affairs though, technically they had close mutual links). He then arranged a meeting with Saskia Spiekman, who is the museum librarian. Three weeks later I returned to the Museum again; and found on a table several boxes with all sort of materials. After a few minutes, during she was looking in here dbase, she said: oh hold on, we might not hold the copyright! We found out that Klaas Dijkstra had passed away in 1976 and we traced his last address. My first approach was a failure, and I decided to contact the Municipal Archives of Zeist. Luckily the archivist was very kind and cooperative and he sent me what he knew about Klaas Dijkstra (they are not obliged to help you, especially not in respect to the 'privacy legislations'). From there I had to contact the Municipal Archives of Nijmegen. My first approach was a failure, as a chap on the phone, maybe a temporal worker, told me that they didn't have materials on Klaas Dijkstra's daughter. I didn't trust the man and I decided to give it a second trial. This was a hit, as I was informed that indeed Dijkstra's daughter Fockeltje-Aaltje had moved in October 1946 to ... "Den Passar" Bali, Dutch East-Indies, now Indonesia. This was for me a blow! As she was no longer a Dutch citizen. What to do? June 2004 I had to visit a section of the Dutch National Archives in the Hague and doubted whether I should give it a try tracing on Fockeltje-Aaltje again. I did, and entered the hall and went for my query on to the information desk. The lady asked me whether I had a particular information, which I had to deny, as when I would have known it I wouldn't be standing here! She took the telephone and tried to reach someone. No answer, a second approach at a second number equal result. A staff member passed by and said: oh they might be smoking a cigarette outside. She replied, I cannot help you further sir, please go up the stairs and ask the staff member behind the table in the reading room. I again repeated my concern and luckily said: I would please like to know about the whereabouts of 'Fockeltje-Aaltje van Vooren-Dijkstra'? He replied Dijkstra hmmm, asked me about the year when he died and typed in something in his computer. After a few seconds he said: I have traced about 1400 death announcements on this name, I have no time to look at them all. Don't you have more details? I replied, that when I would have known the details he would like to have, that I would certainly have brought these along. Then he asked me, can't you get from somewhere additional information? I considered oh, I will phone my wife by means of my mobile phone. I went into the hall and phoned here. Say, within seven minutes I returned into the reading room again and got his instant answer: oh, she got two children in Palembang! (on Sumatra) I replied - I back your pardon? The then told me that about half a year ago he had done some investigation on the family-name 'van Vooren' in Dutch East-Indies. Then he typed in his PC the name 'van Vooren' and told me that luckily there are not so many around. He scrolled a bit down and pointed at two names, he then said: you have 90 % chance that these are the two sons born in Palembang. It was not 90 % but it was the Jackpot. The oldest grandson of Klaas Dijkstra had helped his grandpa about 1972/74 with preparing the photos and the drawings. His then just married wife had typed in the manuscript! And, they possess grandfather's archives! Now things started to get momentum. His wife was so kind to type in the text of the second section again, as OCR would have made things more difficult, due to the very poor copy quality. (in the days of the early 1970s only electrical type writers were around, not yet having data storage) Andries van Bronckhorst had been so kind in the meantime to offer his assistance in typing over part one (both had to handle about 250 pages each). I had to scan all photos from Dijkstra's private archive (about 200-250). Dijkstra's manuscript was about 1974 published in 8 samples in a kind of 'blue printed duplication technique', for internal PTT use only (Bidoc). In Holland this way of copying is known as: 'Stencil' kopie. The issue which we ultimately published was actually containing more information than the 1974 edition, as we could dig from Klaas Dijkstra's personal more extensive version. Where he used only abbreviations (like Mr S. or town H. and so forth), we could now mention what actually was being meant in full extent. Which I regard being quite relevant for a 'time document'.
A spin-off of my commitment to publish Klaas Dijkstra's book Radio Malabar was that I was honoured with a so-called "Veder Belonging". Which I received on 19 April 2007. All my commitments had been entirely "pro Deo". In my opinion curious is, that some who I did send a copy commented that it was a very bad written book! Nevertheless, all those really interested in the history of technology where most enthusiastic about the publication, as nothing that like had been issued before! My conclusion is, based however on long term experiences - that the Dutch public is generally not interested in the history of technology at all. Klaas Dijkstra was an eye-witness (1921-1945 in Dutch East-Indies), who had worked on his manuscript for 25 years and whose account is unique! My commitment with Klaas Dijkstra's book is also having a curious implication. Anton Veder was a 'bank director' living in Rotterdam, who was very much dedicated to radio techniques. Klaas was during World War I on military duty and met Veder during military 'direction finder' trials (maybe Anton Veder was on military duty as well). He also visited Veder in his private home, where they both worked in Veder's workshop. In 1933/34 a team of the Radio Laboratorium in Bandung (Dutch East-Indies, now Indonesia) got a Veder Prize for their engagement in creating radio communications between Holland and Dutch East-Indies (NOI). In 1934 also Klaas Dijkstra got a prize as well (one year delayed though, joined the Bandung-group prize), as he was the designer of a 80 kW shortwave transmitter. Klaas Dijkstra was thus linked twice with 'Veder'. That I got a Veder beloning for my commitment in getting Dijkstra's book published is the third link (connection) to Dijkstra/Veder/AOB. Veder by the way, set up this prize, but he passed away (1927) before it was to be given for the first time.
17 November 2006, the book was officially introduced. Relatives of Klaas Dijkstra and most who had been engaged were attending this event. Which was held in the left entrance building to Gebouw A. Radio Malabar and Radio Kootwijk were both counter station. Messages sent from Radio Malabar were replied by Radio Kootwijk and vice verse. This latter station was especially built for this purpose!
There was another implication, and that was that shortly after the book was issued, family members of Klaas Dijkstra's chief 'Willem Einthoven' were taken contact with me. Not long thereafter others related to the Bandung Radio Lab crew were in touch with me as well. Of course, I mean children of Dijkstra's colleagues. Nevertheless, they were old enough to remember the affairs of the 1930s and 1940s in Bandung. These children were being put on transport with their parents to Tokyo Japan in January 1944. I even got the diary of a mother that she has kept beginning with their leaving from Java up to their liberation by the US troops and arrival in Australia afterwards. Five members of the Radio Lab of Bandung were, including their relatives and their private baggage shipped to Japan. Most of their baggage was lost, however, due to the US troops after a storm in Manila 1945!
I would like to contribute an additional chapter on the Japanese period, which is astonishingly well documented! Due to all my engagements, I couldn't find yet time to start with concentrating on this intriguing story.
DEGON published a booklet on the history of radar, in which among others both Yves Blanchard and I have contributed our research results of 2004.
This year was mainly dedicated to 100 Years of Radar (Radar I & Radar II). We came further than anyone else before! I must confess that we have had great luck there is no doubt about it, but also because previous searchers did not always have done an appropriate job. It must be said, however, that some was also owing to Christian Hülsmeyer's, maybe suppressed traumatic, memories. Some facts were flowed and some were mixed up with fading recollections. Viewing the fact that the interest in Hülsmeyer early radar inventions was mainly initiated after a German newspaper article of 1948, thus > 40 years had been passed since; no wonder that given the circumstances confusion was taking place. No one in Hülsmeyer's family might have bothered much before this episode of 1948, the days before he even was married. After I guess 1948 - Hülsmeyer's daughter Annelise stood firm to get the honour for what she thought - here father deserved (she was also the mother of the grand daughter who still lives in Hülsmeyer's villa) (see Radar I, further down the webpage). Most of here life since 1948 should be regarded in this context. That at all documents remained and even unexpected ones were found - was mainly due to Annelise's persisting commitments.
My first step was set by calling my late friend Helmut Liebich (DL1OY) about October 2003, and asking him whether he knew someone who could assist us with searching Cologne (Köln) and Düsseldorf archives? Just the two cities that played such an important role in our survey, but also places being too far away from Amsterdam as to be visited regularly. Helmut answered instantly, call my brother Reinhold, he lives in Düsseldorf and is used to search in archives. Within ten days Reinhold Liebich was in touch with Hülsmeyer's grand daughter still living in Hülsmeyer's villa. And, most significantly, she possessed here mother's magic suitcase with a lot of original document copies. Mid November 2003, Adri de Keijzer and I went on a visit there. It was a very fruitful one, as we were able to reproduce documents even some in full colour. The photographic reproductions and Photoshopping was successfully commenced by Adri, as always!
Dick Rollema phoned me about Christmas 2003, whether I would like to meet up with a group of Dutch searchers under Piet van Genderen (TU-Delft/Thales) who was also planning a 100 Years of Radar publication. About mid January a delegation visited me in Diemen and we exchanged our thoughts and knowledge. It was agreed upon that I would also be engaged in their project.
Not long there after Piet van Genderen phoned me with a query, whether I would mind to contact his former colleague of Thales France Yves Blanchard. We sent him an e-mail and we got a reply that he was at present in Chile and would respond when being back home. Say about six weeks later I got Yves on the phone and I stressed that I would also like to contribute to the Radar Conference to be held in Toulouse, October 2004. He asked me if I am an historian, which I had to deny. To break the deadlock I proposed that I will send him my manuscript and he promised me to read it carefully. Resulting finally in an acceptance of my contribution.
In the meantime Adri de Keizer was trying to set up an exhibition somewhere in Rotterdam. As Rotterdam had been the place where Hülsmeyer had given a successful demonstration for a group of Shipping Representatives (9 June 1904, harbour of Rotterdam). Everybody trying to motivate 'museum people' know - that the lower echelons are sometimes enthusiastic, but their managers are normally not. However, Adri finally managed to get an one month exhibition in the Rotterdam Central Library. Adri's work was a great success. We managed to invite Hülsmeyer's grand daughter and Yves Blanchard attended a few days thereafter.
Derk Rouwhorst, also a member of our Foundation Board, had sent me a crucial small piece of a newspaper, showing an interview of Hülsmeyer (I still don't know the name of the newspaper). We may regard being his last interview, as he died about one month thereafter. This newspaper article was crucial for our research! I didn't grasp in the beginning the mistake Hülsmeyer then made. He spoke about "I still remember vividly the day in the autumn of that year"! Then I realised - autumn? The Rotterdam demonstration was held on 9 June 1904; had the weather been that day so poor, that it looked like an autumn day? Thanks to the the Rotterdam Municipal Archives, we know that the weather was relatively good. Wouldn't it be possible that there had been an unknown demonstration or experiment in autumn? We both (Adri and I) approached the HAL archives again and - YES - we traced two letters, one of Heinrich Mannheim on behalf of the Teleboliskop Gesellschaft and a very kind reply on behalf of the HAL ceo Mr. Wierdsma. Even more significant was our finding of the minutes of meeting of the shipping conference held in London in 1905. As so often, what is relevant is not in the folder where you are looking for, but in the next one. As our folder was containing two series but being kept in a single folder. However, in the 1905 minutes they came back on Hülsmeyer's Telemobiloskop apparatus and it was told that an experiment near Hoek van Holland (Hook of Holland) had been a failure. Some of the British audience publicly said - that its technique was nonsense and that no one will ever hear again of it. Most of Britons of those days were very much influenced by Marconi, maybe also a bit indoctrinated (maybe also feeling that "It was not invented here"). This statement was truly ridiculous, as we know now.
Reinhold Liebich in the meantime was approaching the Municipal Archives of Cologne (Köln). He traced several pictures. I think it was in September 2004, when I got a message from him in which he explained - that the always referred to "Hohenzollernbrücke" did not exist in the days when Hülsmeyer commenced his first trials under the bridge in Cologne. It was an older bridge called by locals "Die Mausefalle" (the mouse trap). This latter bridge was too old and restricted train and public traffic too much (please notice my paper). It was, however, replaced since 1911 by what is now known the Hohenzollern Bridge. I instantly phoned Yves and warned him first to sit down carefully and being sure that he couldn't fall off his chair! He was like me also very much surprised! I believe, that these kinds of facts should have been discovered by previous researchers. We must, however, notice - that grand old Hülsmeyer didn't make this mistake during a radio interview of April 1954 (original sound recording in MP 3). Here he mentioned: "Unter der Rhein-Brücke", what is entirely correct; as he didn't mention the name of the bridge.
Another matter of luck was the meeting up with Hülsmeyer relatives at the Toulouse Radar Conference. Yves had done a great job in tracing individuals and visiting places which had a link to Hülsmeyer (some relatives were not on speaking terms to one another). I regard that Yves took photos of all places "where Hülsmeyer once had went to the loo". During a social talk with a cousin, he told me that his father had sadly died a few weeks ago, and that they have found among the family papers, a copy of a hand-written notary document of 1904. This document is turning the Hülsmeyer Saga partly upside-down! Please read about it in my paper: Christian Hülsmeyer and about the early days of radar inventions, a survey (pdf page 37+) as well as Part II.
One may ask, why foreigners have had to organise a 100 Years of Radar Centenary and not German institutions? I called first Mr. Petzold of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, their response was negative - they had already recently dedicated to an international Radar Workshop in autumn 1992. I knew that because I joined that remarkable event. Then I contacted the Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin, they also rejected to join an event. I guess, in this respect museums word wide are having similar attitudes. Maybe caused by the fact that they themselves were not the initiators. They could have joined when they would have started early enough. I guess also, they had either no interest or lost the sense for these kinds of key events. Nevertheless, it were both French and Dutch enthusiasts who successfully realised these projects!
In June 2004, the IEEE commemorated 100 Years of Electronics, held in Bletchley Park UK. I also gave a paper on aspects of German Electronic Engineering. This paper is not entirely identical to the one I contributed, as it is IEEE practice to claim copyrights fully. Nevertheless, it is even more extensive than the one of June 2004. A funny story: when the chairman arrived at London Heathrow, he asked his taxi driver to bring him to Bletchley Park, the man didn't knew what it was. As second story, one of the attendees asked in Milton Kean the place where Bletchley Park belongs to, a taxi driver to bring him from the train station to Bletchley Park (only a few minutes away, he even could have walked it); I guess you understand the confusion! Even there Bletchley Park is locally hardly known. Whereas in the rest of the world most intellectuals can tell much about BP.
In October 2004, just before we were about to leave for Toulouse, Piet van Genderen managed a 100 Years of Radar Exhibition during the Micro Wave Conference held in Amsterdam RAI Conference Centre.
I contributed to the CHiDE Symposium held at Bournemouth University in September 2003 with a contribution called: Some aspects of the German military “Abwehr” wireless service, during the course of World War Two. Although, this subject is not directly my cup of tea, I have nevertheless, decided to contribute a paper. Which still is regularly being visited on our website.
Until about late spring of 2003, I was still supporting voluntarily the registration of the artefacts belonging to the TU-Delft - Techniek Museum. For some time it concerned the artefacts from 'OCP' and/or "Industrieel Ontwerpen". I took care for a while of the separation of the former "Post Collection". Mr Post who had passed away about 1980, when I remember well. His collection of valves and magnetrons had been donated by his 'will' to the Studieverzameling Electrotechniek. As so often, a new person is coming in charge, new strategy is emerging and the "Post" collection was considered being of no interest and should be either returned to the Post family or should be sold at an auction. It proved, by the way, to be quite difficult to trace the legal relatives. My task was, to find out what originated from the Studieverzameling and what was part of the former Post collection. There existed an old dBase, so that I could deduce how things originally had been organized. I also considered that some of the valves were 'rubbish' and I had to separate these from the more valuable ones as well.
Although, still being engaged in re-organizing our collection, I was able to prepare a paper for the CHiDE September Symposium held at the Bournemouth University. Title: Aspects of the German Naval Communications Research Establishment
In January 2002, I also became engaged with the registration of the artefacts of the former: "Studieverzameling Electrotechniek", which was now under jurisdiction of the Techniek Museum TU-Delft. This entity was liquidated late 2008, as nobody in Delft showed any interest in the history of science and technology.
This year was mainly dedicated to clean up what could not have been done because of the many various occupations in the previous year.
From the beginning of January 2001 up to 31 May 2001 I was engaged several days a week in clearing the Radio Kootwijk building (Gebouw A).
This year was for us a most stressful, as it was mainly dedicated to the organisation of the exhibition on: Aspects of precision measurements (Aspecten van precisie meetingen)
I first investigated what we possess in our own collection. And, I soon recognised that this was inadequate, as its base was far too small. I then tried to get other entities involved. Marten Dijkstra from Belgium, who was in those days a member of our Foundation Board, brought me in touch with Adri de Keijzer again. The latter laid then contact with Theo Ensing (about April), who was at that time the curator of the so-called: Studieverzameling Electrotechniek at the Mekelweg (ITS) in Delft (TU-Delft). Their collection (and exhibits) was being stored in the basement of that university building. They possessed a rather nice, in some respect unique, collection, which was kept after (supported) by a group of volunteers. By the way, like most volunteers seem to do, they were more drinking tea or coffee than really working on conservations. Nevertheless, I remember particularly Hugo Dorenbos, who took care of the documentation and remaining library, he had done a great job! Also late Walther Spong, who mainly was dedicated to obituaries of Delft University Scholars (the latter had a so-called "0-Aanstelling"). However, Theo Ensing responded most enthusiastic. It was due to him that we finally were able to hold our great exhibition in the huge transmitter hall of Radio Kootwijk Gebouw A (Since about 1980 a Dutch national heritage site).
At that time Theo Ensing encountered a lot of resistance from the academic community of the section ITS, particularly the Dean was against him. I will not trying to judge their mutual conflicts. However, Theo managed first that he could go on with preparing a mutual exhibition. In Dutch language we would say: hij stak zijn nek uit! Where it could take place was not yet decided. It has to be said though, we also got support from other collectors from Holland and Belgium.
Adri de Keijzer became involved as he is a talented photographer and he started with making meticulous nice pictures of the selected artefacts. He commenced it with his digital Nikon camera having for that time a quite high resolution of 1.5 megapixel! However, I am still convinced that even with modern equipment one hardly can beat his results!
During our vacation in Italy that year, I considered that this event was a good opportunity to thoroughly investigate the implications and theories on which these artefacts were based. I also decided, that the posters should be at least in A3 size and that all should be mounted at eye-level, so that there is a direct link between the text content and the artefacts on display. I chose 24 dot characters, so that even from some distance the text was for everyone readable. I was also able to prepare a catalogue which covered all the posters. Even state of the art basic principles, like: Quantum-Hall and Josephson effect (physics) among many other technologies were being dealt with. Our aim was, to show the route from basic values towards fundamental standards bridging say two centuries. (ending up with the SI system)
We are now about the beginning of September 2000. Theo Ensing in the meantime showed my work on to various university people and there was no serious objection.
In the meantime, we got an offer from Martin Nieuwenhuizen, the former Station Chief of Radio Kootwijk, who was still acting as Radio Kootwijk manager (also being a board member of our Foundation). Although, he was then on the payroll of 'Station 12', a satellite communication branch owned by Dutch KPN; he regarded this exhibition as being his "closing down Radio Kootwijk party". It was, by the way, the last opportunity to see the transmitters of Radio Kootwijk.
25 November 2010 was finally set as the main date. Everybody custom with organizing big events and bringing volunteers and many others together, may understand that it is extremely difficult to get everyone’s nose into the same direction. Nevertheless, the 25th proved to be a good day.
A result of Theo Ensing's struggle was, that he encountered all sorts of reluctance and even strong resistance. During the final preparations, I was forced to guarantee payments for the use of poster stands, artefacts and their transport. I had to stand for say, ƒ 2500,-- in those days quite an amount of money for a private person.
However, we managed finally to get things done. Transport was accomplished and the huge station hall was converted into a very nice exhibition venue.
Roughly estimated, we hosted more than 1500 visitors! Some came in the first place to see for the last time the remaining transmitters. But most guest came to see the wide range of historical even unique artefacts as well as the many demonstrations. Quite a lot stayed the entire day!
Shown was, among many more things:- luminous quartz phenomena – most rare ‘Wolff Kompensators’ (in English known as Potentiometers) in many variations - slotted line demonstrations –Time-domain-reflector measurements, by which means one can even watching inside a coaxial connector what its impedance behaviour is - Einthoven cardiograph - various British Cambridge instruments - some of which very unique measurement apparatus - Keith Thrower from England came over to assist us with demonstrating that: piezo-electric phenomenon is really causing mechanical movements (it was demonstrated by means of a stroboscope that a 'ring-quartz' was actually contracting substantially for a few mm at 375 Hz!) - Clark cells and Weston-Standard-Cell, the latter which was for about 50 years was the d.c. voltage standard, world wide, which value was divined up to 10-5 V ....
The next week we hosted a class of a Polytechnic from the Hague.
After the students left, we started with repacking the artefacts for transport back where they came from. This took a few days.
Theo Ensing was luckily able to manage that I did not have to pay for transport and the other expenses.
Maybe as a result of his engagement in facilitating our mutual exhibition, he was 'quit' from his function about May/June 2001. We may presume, however, that our engagement was not the main reason for this blow (conflict).
About late 2008, collected poems by late Walter Spong were presented in the former museum space in the basement of the ITS building at the Mekelweg in Delft. Adri de Keijzer met there again with a university staff member and he was told that our presentation on "strain gauzes" is still being part of their university course.
After the exhibition had been cleared, I felt that I had to support Martin Nieuwenhuizen with clearing the Radio Kootwijk building. Which had to be commenced ultimately on 31 May 2001!
During this process, I had to make a selection of the remaining Kootwijk archive papers. Imagine, sitting with my back towards a double broad cupboard with a pile (belt) of about 1 m high of papers of all sorts. I was sitting on a chair with in front of me a range of boxes and on my knees a bunch of papers and throwing the bits and pieces into the boxes of which I regarded that it should belong to. A process that took me more than two weeks.
At that time it was not yet clear who would accept the responsibility for the remaining Kootwijk archives. This clearly is a general downside of "Privatising" where a former state owned entity is only focussing now on their very short term core business. In the year 2000 most telecom companies in their 'immeasurable wisdom' invested (lost) billions in UMTS licenses. Not very clever people, by the way!
However, it proved that no one was accepting these papers, and I offered that our Foundation should take further responsibility. That is why the Kootwijk papers are part of our archives since. It is in fact a pity that Dutch institutions lack the responsibility of taking care of some aspects of their national heritage (this may be now a world wide nuisance). To give you an example: On display in the building was a 'Marquette' which showed the antenna system of Radio Kootwijk in its environment. A quite expensive, but very nice, display. It was finally accepted by the Municipal Historical Museum of Apeldoorn, of which latter city Radio Kootwijk buildings and terrain is a part of. Some years later Martin Nieuwenhuizen asked them about the whereabouts of this unique exhibit. They didn't know where he was talking about. It turned out, that they had destructed it as to clear some storage space.
It had been Martin's plan for many years to establish a kind of 'national transmitter or communication museum' in the Radio Kootwijk main building (Gebouw A). It turned out, however, that no one was willing to step in and Martin finally had to liquidate all the remaining artefacts. Some were handed over to those willing to take care of it, some had to be simply scrapped. Luckily, since a year (December 2009) the 'Radio Kootwijk terrain and the many buildings' has become part of the Dutch institution (entity): Staatsbosbeheer. Thus, since a ministry is ultimately responsible, and there is some funding that can take care of the premises. Although, maintenance is already decades 'over due'!
My, maybe a bit harsh, though, realistic thesis: Never trust an institution which is reluctantly accepting a gift! Most likely, that they will as soon as possible trying to get rid of it. Even when such institutions is presently very pleased with a gift, sometimes even seeking for it, they, nevertheless, might after a personnel change occurs - their new policy is then often prompting a major change; and that they will soon, good or bad, getting rid of some of their heritages! Sometimes this even will happen in respect to their 'core artefacts'. This might later be causing great regrets, maybe in the next generation. Please bear in mind - most museum staff is seating only rather temporally on 'a chair', they are often moved around in an organisation before they are finally made redundant. Like the artefacts they should have been responsible for.
In February 2000 I also gave a paper for Michael Duffy's Symposium held at Imperial College, on: Some aspects of precision time measurements, controlled by means of piezo-electric-vibrators, as deployed in Germany, prior to 1950
I gave two papers, one to Michael Duffy's Symposium held at Imperial College London, February 1999, on aspects of German electronic Engineering
And a paper to the CHiDE Symposium held at Bournemouth University in September 1999, on: aspects of military communications
I gave a paper for the CHiDE Symposium held in September 1998, on HF/DF (Huff-Duff).
My book: Funkpeilung als allieerte Waffe gegen deutsche U-Boote 1939-1945 was issued late that year. Took me 5 years of work, it was translated by late Heinz Lissok.
In September 1997, I gave a paper for the CHiDE Symposium held at Bournemouth University on: Navigational aids
In July 1997, my friend Hans Bechthold passed away. He possessed a huge collection, particularly on Allied wartime, but also, 1950 and 1960 commercial, technology.
I gave a paper on: Some hardly known aspects of the GHG, the U-boat’s group listening apparatus at the annual CHiDE Symposium at Bournemouth University in September.
I presented two papers. First in September 1995 for the occasion: 100 Years of Radio held at Savoy Place (IEE) in London, this paper was about German Electronics Engineering (about in line with my a second paper, of 2004 at Bletchley Park).
Second was my contribution to the first CHiDE international conference at Bournemouth University in December, on: Naxos, the history of a German mobile radar direction finder.
On 7 December 1994 our Foundation C.D.V. & T. was established.
My first book: Deckname Würzburg was being issued (translation by late Heinz Lissok).
Chairman, Arthur O. Bauer
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